In 1980s, Fujitsu, Hitachi, and Mitsubishi Electric (major Japanese
computer manufacturers) were developing mainframe computers with support
from the Japanese Ministry for International Trade and Industry (MITI) to
catch up IBM. They thought that IBM mainframe's operating system was so
proliferated in Japan that it had to be of public domain, and it was beyond
their capability to develop by themselves. They tried to get its latest
version from American firms free of charge. They later had to pay IBM the
substantial amount of penalties, e.g., $800 million to $1 billion by Fujitsu
<Pollack, Andrew, 1997, "IBM and Fujitsu Reach Agreement,"
The New York Times, May 12, 1997>.