Footnote [13]:
In 1980s, Fujitsu, Hitachi, and Mitsubishi Electric (major Japanese computer manufacturers) were developing mainframe computers with support from the Japanese Ministry for International Trade and Industry (MITI) to catch up IBM. They thought that IBM mainframe's operating system was so proliferated in Japan that it had to be of public domain, and it was beyond their capability to develop by themselves. They tried to get its latest version from American firms free of charge. They later had to pay IBM the substantial amount of penalties, e.g., $800 million to $1 billion by Fujitsu <Pollack, Andrew, 1997, "IBM and Fujitsu Reach Agreement," The New York Times, May 12, 1997>.