Footnote [54]:
Incidentally, CDC 6000 and IBM 370, etc., were Single Instruction Single Data (SISD) stream, and ILLIAC-4, CRAY-I and CDC STAR were Single Instruction Multiple Data (SIMD) stream. They were inherently slower than HEP.

At the 1975 SCSC in Chicago, a scientist presented his computer simulation of an airplane design with ILIAC-IV (4 parallel digital processors) eliminating wind tunnel experiment. This might be the beginning of all simulation approach for complex engineering projects.

This HEP was the start of the so-called massively parallel processing machine such as Thinking machine, etc. JANUS, the current world fastest supercomputer at Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, NM, has 9,072 Pentium Pro processors with teraflop speed. Scientists are now predicting to have a petaflop machine which can perform one quadrillion (a thousand trillion) operations a second by 2010 <Johnson, George, 1997, "Giant Computer Virtually Conquers Space and Time," The New York Times, September 2, 1997>.