Global e-Learning for Global Peace
Global University System
This paper is written for the forthcoming publication
"Communication and Learning in the Multicultural World”
by the University of Tampere, Finland,
edited by Pekka Ruohotie,
to celebrate the 60th birthday of
the GUS Acting President Tapio Varis
in June 2006.
December 29, 2005
Takeshi Utsumi, Ph.D., P.E.
Founder and Vice President for Technology & Coordination, Global University System (GUS)
Chairman, GLObal Systems Analysis and Simulation Association in the U.S.A. (GLOSAS/USA)
43-23 Colden Street
Flushing, NY 11355-3998, U.S.A.
The Global University System (GUS) [Utsumi, et al, 2003] is a worldwide initiative to create advanced telecommunications infrastructure for accessing educational resources across national and cultural boundaries for global peace. GUS aims to create a worldwide consortium of universities to provide the underdeveloped world with access to 21st Century education via broadband Internet technologies. The aim is to achieve “education and healthcare for all,” anywhere, anytime and at any pace.
The GUS works in the major regions of the globe with partnerships of higher education and healthcare institutions. Learners in these regions will be able to take their courses from member institutions around the world to receive a GUS degree. These learners and their professors from partner institutions will also form a global forum for exchange of ideas and information and for conducting collaborative research and development with emerging global GRID computer network technology.
Globally Collaborative Environmental Peace Gaming (GCEPG) project [Utsumi, 2003] with a globally distributed computer simulation system, focusing on the issue of environment and sustainable development in developing countries, is to train would-be decision-makers in crisis management, conflict resolution, and negotiation techniques basing on “facts and figures.” The GUS will supply game players from around the world. Globally Collaborative Innovation Network (GCIN) will be its powerful consequential extension and foster creativity of youngsters around the world.
Keyword: global education, GRID, globally distributed computer simulation, globally collaborative environmental peace gaming and innovation network
From a flyer of TELECOM Interactivity 97 of ITU
Economic interdependence among nations and cultures is spawning a global economy. Globalisation also highlights clashes of divergent cultures and belief systems, both political and religious. If global peace is ever to be achieved, global-scale education, with the use of the modern digital telecommunications, will be needed to create mutual understanding among nations, cultures, ethnic groups, and religions. The Internet is the future of telecommunications and can be a medium for building peace.
Over the past three decades, GLOSAS/USA (the founder of Global University System (GUS) [Utsumi, et al, 2003]) has played a major pioneering role in extending U.S. data communication networks to other countries, particularly to Japan, and deregulating Japanese telecommunication policies for the use of e-mail through ARPANET, Telenet and Internet. This triggered the de-monopolization and privatization of Japanese telecommunications industries. This liberalization of the telecommunication industry has been emulated and has now created a more enabling environment for economic and social development in many other countries. Over 180 countries have Internet access and more than one billion people use e-mail around the world nowadays. American and other countries' university courses now reach many under-served developing countries.
Next to that, since 1986, GLOSAS conducted a series of innovative distance teaching trials with multipoint-to-multipoint multimedia interactive videoconferences using hybrid delivery technologies, which often spanned the globe and came to be called the "Global Lecture Hall (GLH)" tm, including demonstrations of telemedicine from Finland and Amazon to the US.
GUS has a long history of concept development and testing of multiple hardware configurations suitable for remote Internet access. These initial steps were summarized in our recent book, Global Peace Through the Global University System [Varis, et al, 2003]. The purpose of this book was to make internationally known the philosophy, past and present actions, as well as future plans of the GUS, which had resulted from years of development and a seminal working conference at the University of Tampere, Finland, in 1999, with funds from the World Bank, US National Science Foundation and others.
The editors’ paper in the book, ”Creating Global University System” [Utsumi, et al, 2003] emphasized the important role of higher educational institutions not only as the knowledge centers of their community for the eradication of poverty and isolation, but also as the gateway to the world for collaboration of creating new knowledge in global knowledge society of the 21st Century (Figure 1). This paper summarizes GUS accomplishments and shows that GUS is poised to begin implementation of broadband Internet access and academic programs in remote areas of the world.
Figure 1: University as the Leader of Community
GUS aims to build a higher level of humanity with mutual understanding across national and cultural boundaries for global peace. The GUS is a worldwide initiative to create satellite/wireless telecommunications infrastructure and educational programs for accessing educational resources. The mission of GUS is to help higher educational institutions in remote/rural areas of developing countries to deploy broadband Internet in order to close the digital divide. A GUS education thus hopes to promote world prosperity, justice, and peace, based on moral principles rather than political or ideological doctrines. Education and job skills are the keys in determining a nation’s wealth and influence.
GUS has group activities in the various developing countries in partnership with higher learning and healthcare institutions. They foster the establishment of GUS in their countries, with the use of an advanced global broadband Internet virtual private network. These will then connect the universities with secondary and elementary schools, libraries, hospitals, local government offices and NGOs, etc., through broadband wireless Internet of Community Development Networks at drastically discounted rates or free of charge.
Learners in these regions will be able to take their courses from member institutions around the world to receive a GUS degree. These learners and their professors from participating institutions will form a global forum for exchange of ideas and information and for conducting collaborative research and development with emerging global GRID computer network technology.
Modern e-learning and telemedicine require high-speed access to the World Wide Web. Multi-media requirements might include two-way audio, full-motion videoconferencing up to MPEG4 quality, television-quality netcasting, and high-resolution image transfer for telemedicine. The objective of increasing quality of audio/video delivery, high interactivity, and broadband throughput can be seen as a global objective of closing the digital divide to improve e-learning and e-healthcare services in rural/remote areas of developing countries.
As diagrammed in Figure 2, GUS programs and services will be delivered via regional satellite hubs, typically located at a major university, that connect via high-speed satellite (~ 45 Mbps) to educational resource cites in the E.U., U.S., and Japan. In a sense, the regional satellite hub is to be the major Internet Service Provider (ISP) for not-for-profit organizations in the region and the gateway to the outside world. The major university may also be connected to very high speed broadband Internet, as similar to the optical fiber network at 3 Gbps of the Multimedia Broadband Internet (MBI) of the Ethiopian government.
Regional hubs link to branch campuses or other regional educational institutions via microwave (~ 45 Mbps) over relatively short distances (25-50 miles). Communication from the hub and branch campuses to local sites, over distances up to 10 miles, is to be achieved by spread-spectrum wireless (~ 2-10 Mbps) Internet networks, which do not require licenses in most countries.
The buildings with a broadband Internet connection will then also become relay points for the low-cost “Wi-Fi (wireless fidelity)” networks at 10 Mbps that are now rapidly appearing in Japan, USA and Europe. This advanced wireless communication with laptop computer will make e-learning possible for anyone, anywhere, and anytime with capabilities of Internet telephony, fax, voice mail, e-mail, Web access, videoconferencing, etc. This is not only to help local community development, but also to assure close cooperation among higher, middle and lower levels of education.
GUS projects are now starting in Ethiopia, Nigeria, Malawi, and Sierra Leon in Africa, Cambodia, Philippines, and China in Asia, etc., and have received inquiries for the same from others, too.
We are now encouraging our colleagues in those countries to form consortiums of higher educational and healthcare institutions to aggregate their Internet usages through the trunk line from the hub university to outside world for bringing drastic cost reduction.
For example, our Nigerian colleagues are now establishing the International Centers of Excellence for e-Health in Africa (ICEEHA) at the Abia State University Teaching Hospital (ABSUTH) to promote National e-Health/Telemedicine Policy in Nigeria and throughout Africa, as focusing on the “Prevention of Mother-to-Child HIV/AIDS Transmission,” which operation will be enhanced with instructions to improve nutrition for HIV/AIDS patients and child bearing mothers in remote/rural areas of Nigeria through Local Community Development Networks (LCDNs), and in cooperation with the World Health Organization and Global University System in Nigeria (GUS/Nigeria) [Oji, et al, 2005].
GUS is headquartered at the Global E-learning Center at the University of Tampere in Finland, under the direction of the UNESCO/UNITWIN Networking Chair, held by Dr. Tapio Varis. Currently, institutions with faculty members who are participating in GUS development projects are numerous in various countries. GUS will serve as an educational broker for universities, thus helping them gain international influence and access to students that they would otherwise not reach. Those institutions affiliated with GUS become members of the GUS/UNESCO/UNITWIN Networking Chair Program.
Globally Collaborative Environmental Peace Gaming (GCEPG) [Utsumi, 2003] project proposes to utilize the semantic benefits of gaming simulation on a global scale to aid decision makers in appreciating the impact of their decisions on interwoven global problems. The GCEPG with a globally distributed computer simulation system, focusing on the issue of environment and sustainable development in developing countries, is to train would-be leaders in crisis management, conflict resolution, and negotiation techniques basing on “facts and figures.” The GUS will supply game players, simulationists, tech support from around the world. With global GRID computer networking technology and Beowulf mini-supercomputers of cluster computing technology [Sterling, 2001], we plan to develop a socio-economic-environmental simulation system and a climate simulation system in parallel fashion, both of which are to be interconnected in global scale – see Figure 3.
Globally distributed climate simulation system
Globally distributed socio-economic-environmental simulation system
Figure 3: Globally collaborative environmental peace gaming networks
The GCEPG is a computerized gaming/simulation to help decision makers construct a globally distributed decision-support system for positive sum/win-win alternatives to conflict and war. The idea involves interconnecting experts in many countries via global Internet to collaborate in the discovering of new solutions for world crises, such as the deteriorating ecology of our globe, and to explore new alternatives for a world order capable of addressing the problems and opportunities of an interdependent globe. Gaming/simulation is the best tool we have for understanding the world's interwoven problems and the solutions we propose for them. System analysis for systemic change at the global level is a precondition for any significant resolution to today's global-scale problems. The understanding gained with scientific and rational analysis and critical thinking basing on “facts and figures” would be the basis of conflict resolution for world peace, and hence ought to provide the basic principle of global education for peace.
The purpose of an interactive gaming mechanism is to help find appropriate alternative policies by establishing consensus among participating parties. It is suggested here that globally distributed computer simulation should be tested interactively with the game player inserting pseudo-policy parameters into the models whenever necessary, during the execution of simulation. This is called peace gaming/simulation [Utsumi, 1977] similar to war games practiced by military strategists [Schram et al., 1971]. With the advent of global broadband Internet and standard interface protocols for interconnecting various dispersed, dissimilar host computers, the potential exists for ensuring the coordination of international efforts by providing more frequent communications and an environment for shared development, enabling more credible simulation study than was previously possible.
Since I created Summer Computer Simulation Conference (SCSC) in Denver, CO in 1970, myriad of simulation models in almost every facets of our globe appeared. There are three major methodologies of socio-economic modeling; (1) econometric modeling (initiated by Professor Lawrence R. Klein of University of Pennsylvania, an economic Nobel Laureate), (2) input-output modeling (initiated by Professor Wassily Leontief of New York University, an economic Nobel Laureate), and (3) system dynamics modeling (initiated by Professor Jay W. Forrester of M.I.T.).
Prof. Onishi [Onishi, 2003] has already indicated his strong willingness to cooperate with this GCEPG project as providing his Futures of Global Interdependence (FUGI) model, the world largest econometric model. When we conducted US/Japan foreign trade peace gaming at the conference on "Crisis Management and Conflict Resolution" in New York City in July of 1986, we used it as a single simulation model residing in a supercomputer in Tokyo and we asked him to execute his model with the alternative policy parameters according to the progress of our gaming scenario proposed by noted U.S. economists (Prof. Lester C. Thurow of M.I.T., Provost William Nordhaus of Yale University, and Mr. Keith Johnson of Townsend and Greenspan Company).
However, this time, his FUGI’s sub-models will be split and be dispersed to the countries where the sub-models belong. We will arrange GUS in various countries to host the sub-models of their countries – along with construction and maintenance of its databases, revision and modification of their sub-models, and supply of game players in cooperation with their overseas counterparts through the global GRID computer network [Utsumi, 2005-b].
Prof. Forrester has also indicated to me that his System Dynamics Group already constructed a US national model, which may be used in conjunction with FUGI model. The Millennium Institute <http://www.millenniuminstitute.net/> in Arlington, VA has also indicated their willingness to participate in this project with their national system dynamics models of Bangladesh, China, Ghana, Guyana, Italy, Malawi, Somaliland, Tunisia, and the United States. As soon as we establish our GUS in those countries, we may ask their cooperation to tie together those national models.
Incidentally, after contributing to the early development of digital computers and inventing magnetic-core memory, Prof. Forrester pioneered "system dynamics," a computer simulation methodology for understanding complexity that extends far beyond servomechanisms and Cybernetics theory. He applied quantitative, system analysis and computer simulation technology to complex socio-economic, bio- and eco-systems to evaluate how alternative policies affect growth, stability, fluctuation, and changing behavior.
The system dynamics’ cause-and-effect analysis based on feedback theory, along with computer simulation modeling, is the best tool to understand the inter-relatedness and inter-dependency of various complex world phenomena.
Under Forrester's leadership, pioneering schools are creating a new kind of pre-college education, starting in kindergarten that is built on a system dynamics foundation. Such education becomes inter-disciplinary with the same computer simulation concepts applied to the environment, biology, history, literature, and economics. We can expect future leaders with expanded abilities for crisis management, policy-making, and negotiation skills for corporate, national, and global issues. The resulting deeper understanding of social and economic complexity, arising from this new kind of education, will enhance mutual understanding among people of different countries and cultures, and facilitate world peace and a sustainable development of humankind in the 21st century.
GRID-based technology enable the sharing, exchange, discovery, and aggregation of resources (processors, storage, scientific devices, information, knowledge, etc.) across geographically distributed sites. Many now consider GRID technology as the next generation Internet, which concept I initiated in 1972 [McLeod, 2000 and Utsumi, 2003]. It has demonstrated all of the effectiveness in the scientific domains as becoming a de-facto e-Science technology infrastructure. This technology promises to do what the Internet has done with data on the applications. Grid computing extends the scope of distributed computing to encompass large-scale resource sharing, including massive data-storages, high-performance networking and powerful computers, highly expansive equipments (i.e., microscopes, telescopes, 3D Cave), etc. GRID technology defines a new powerful computing paradigm by analogy to the electric Power Grid. Users of the GRID will then be able (a) to use his/her private workplace to invoke any application from a remote system, (b) to use the best suited system for executing their desired particular application, (c) to access data securely and consistently from remote sites, (d) to exploit multiple systems to complete complex tasks in an economical manner, or (e) to use multiple systems to solve large problems that exceed the capacity of a single one. In this vision, the sharing doesn’t mean simply exchange of data or files but rather a concrete access to resources (e.g., computers, software, data, etc.).
GRID technology has great potential in education, offering a framework that opens new ways of teaching and learning that have not been possible before. E-mail and multimedia World Wide Web of Internet so far contributed significantly to the world society on the dissemination of information. The next phase of the Internet development with emerging global neural (*) (or GRID) computer networks should be the globally collaborative experiential (the so-called “hands-on”) learning and constructive creation of knowledge and wisdom with interactive actions on virtual reality simulation models of joint global research and development projects on various subjects.
It is said “Knowledge applied with interaction becomes Wisdom.” Globally collaborative experiential learning through broadband Internet, across national, continental and oceanic boundarie would realize such wisdom creation. The principle of the 21st century education should be inheriting wisdom more than the mere transfer of knowledge.
European Learning GRID Infrastructure (ELeGI) Project [Allison, et al, 2003], which is now funded by the European Commission, aims to design and implement advanced service-oriented Grid-based software architecture for learning. (I serve as one of Scientific Advisory Board members of this project.) This project with 23 prominent educational and industrial organizations in Europe will develop a new paradigm focused on knowledge construction using experiential based and collaborative learning approaches in a contextualized, personalized and ubiquitous way. This will replace the current information transfer paradigm, which is based on content, and on the key authoritative figure of the teacher who provides information.
GCEPG project could be a complete and powerful demonstrator of ELeGI Project to show (1) the advantages coming from using advanced technologies (i.e., GRID for accessing to computing resources and collaboration environments) for supporting simulations execution, data analysis, etc., and (2) simulations for learning through the definition of innovative pedagogical models (i.e., socio-constructivist contextualized learning approach), and (3) to show all the benefits coming from the harmonized and synergistic use of advanced technologies together with innovative pedagogical models for learning (i.e., ELeGI).
The cooperation with ELeGI project will assure the development of globally collaborative experiential, distributed learning with globally distributed simulation system for joint research and development on various subjects by youngsters around the world. This will then foster their creativity, and hence promoting mutual understanding among them, also, -- Senator Fulbright once said;
“Learning together and working together are the first steps towards global peace.”
Spreading the culture of creative and innovative society (which is based on a firm democratic principle) can only be done with education -- and this is much better, effective and peaceful way of spreading democracy rather than using any weapons! Thanks to the advent of global broadband Internet and GRID networking technology, this can now be done more readily than before — and more so, in globally collaborative fashion. Globally Collaborative Innovation Network (GCIN) with a globally distributed computer simulation system will foster creativity of youngsters around the world. Our GCEPG project will be its powerful demonstration.
The principle of packet-switching technology (the basis of Internet) is “SHARING” to bring drastic cost reduction of expensive high-speed telecom lines, -- we are extending this principle to the sharing of knowledge and even wisdom with the creation of GUS. The principle of GRID networking technology is “COLLABORATION.” Those two principles of sharing and collaboration are the very basis of attaining global peace, which ought to be the ultimate aim of education rather than mere enhancement of job skills, as in the conventional educational institutions around the world. We hope to attain global peace by proliferating the use of Internet and GRID technologies around the world with e-learning and e-healthcare/telemedicine.
When the new development of the web conferencing feature [BusinessWeek, 2005] will accompany with the distributed computer simulation system through GRID network (e.g., Xgrid of Apple’s new operating system, Tiger [Apple, 2005]), it will create Globally Collaborative Innovation Network at down-to-earth, end-users’ level, which may correspond to the neuron of global brain mentioned above with regard to the “global neural computer network.” This will be the future direction of e-learning, more than web-oriented teaching (for one-way knowledge transfer) and multipoint videoconferencing (for replicating face-to-face class-room setting), for collaborative, distributed, experiential learning and creation of new knowledge with youngsters around the world, which will hence promote mutual understanding for global peace. The word “Economically Underdeveloped” is not necessary synonymous to “Intellectually Underdeveloped,” thus, the GCIN will energize and motivate creativity of youngsters, especially in the so-called developing countries, and hence eradicating their poverty, illiteracy, and isolation.
The growth of advanced economies is driven largely by knowledge workers, such as scientists, engineers, managers, professionals, and artists, compared with only 10% manual labor in manufacturing industry in the U.S. and 10% in the U.K. We now need to bring youngsters around the world to become the world-class knowledge workers with global e-learning and create the environment for them to collaborate with the use of advanced Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) and GRID networking technology. This is because the entire global economy increasingly revolves around innovations that flow from the creative classes.
“Distributed learning” is a term used to describe educational experiences that are distributed across a variety of geographic settings, across time and across various interactive media [Dede, 2004]. It is a culture of learning in which everyone is involved in a collective effort of understanding. Its four characteristics are;
This is a radical departure from the traditional view of schooling, with its emphasis on individual knowledge and performance, and the expectation that students will acquire the same body of knowledge at the same time.
To fully prepare students for 21st century work and citizenship, the education system must transform to provide support for inquiry-based learning in classrooms, in homes and in communities since this is how complex skills such as systems thinking, creativity and collaborations are acquired.
The trends of the 21st Century are; (1) the shift of the technology from analog to digital (e.g., slide rule to digital computer, circuit switching telephony to packet switching digital telecommunication), (2) the globalization of society, commerce, and culture, and (3) the emergence of new knowledge/creative economy out of manufacturing industrial structure [Utsumi, 2005-a].
The engineering is the realization of innovation, which is the commercial application of invention, which is based on creativity, which is the essence of Knowledge Economy Society of the 21st century. In the age of globalization, creativity ought to be made collaboratively in global scale, which in turn brings the mutual understanding among youngsters, and hence global peace.
Computer simulation and its successor, virtual reality/virtual laboratories, are always at the forefront of scientific and engineering research and development to create new knowledge. It has successfully replaced hardware-oriented experiments, e.g., design of aircraft, architecture, bridges, chemical plants, automobile crash testing, and even the design of pharmaceutical molecules, etc. With the advent of broadband Internet around the globe (e.g., GLORIAD [Cole, 2005]) and GRID networking technology, such research and development can now be conducted in distributed computer simulation mode in global scale as aggregating creativity of youngsters around the world. Future of education would be desirable to go along with this direction.
Creativity is the province of Homo sapiens. We live for future, not in past. Science and technology open the future. However, the application of new technology often meets with “Creative Destruction” -- the famous words by Joseph Schumpeter. Any flora and fauna have to break their shell to have their new life (Photo 1). We need not only foster the creative capabilities of youngsters, but also help the destruction of the shells they face at emerging their new life. “The biggest barrier for new development of Human-Centric Knowledge Society is our Industrial Age mindset!” [Kautto-Koivula, et al, 2003]. The industrial age was based on tangible matters, which moral was obedience, e.g, Taylor’s “Time and Motion Study” as an extreme example. The raw materials of knowledge economy are intangible creativity and innovation for which there is no economic theory. Hence, the society has to devise an appropriate scheme to cherish and honor youngsters for their creativity and innovation.
Photo 1: “Creative Destruction”?, Photo taken at Da Vinci Science and Technology Museum, Milan, Italy (March, 2005)
The culture of America is particularly suited for the creative mind. It is a unique crucible for innovation. America is so much more innovative a place than any other country. America allows you to explore your mind. America is the greatest engine of innovation that has ever existed, and it can’t be duplicated anytime soon, because it is the product of a multitude of factors [Friedman, 2004]:
These institutions, which nurture innovation, are the real crown jewels of American culture. The whole process where people get an idea and put together a team, raise the capital, create a product and main-stream it -- that can only be done in the U.S. The U.S. tech workers must keep creating leading edge technologies that make their companies more productive -- especially innovations that spark entirely new markets. This is America’s real edge.
An innovation economy demands that society be open, dynamic, educated, international, and risk-taking. Given chance, innovation can improve all our lives. Financial risk-taking is the fuel that powers the process of change. Worldwide innovation networks are the new keys to R&D vitality and competitiveness. Such networks – broadband, 24/7, wired and wireless -- in the knowledge economy society of the 21st century would nurture the “connected community” and build youngsters’ collaborations to provide the kind of leadership the digital age requires; and above all else, begin promoting the process of enhancing, encouraging and fostering creativity and innovation in all its forms -- in the schools, in the workplace and throughout the community [Eger, 2005].
We are now in the early stages of a new era, “Creative Age,” in which creativity and innovation will be the hallmarks of the most successful communities and vibrant economies. This age will thrive and prosper if the communities have tolerance for dissent, respect for individual enterprise, freedom of expression and recognition that innovation is the driving force for the new knowledge economy, not mass production of low-value goods and services.
At a time of intense division, with deep political and religious fault lines splitting the world, innovation stands out as a powerful integrative force. It ties countries, companies, and consumers together in creating value, solving problems, and generating wealth [BusinessWeek, 2004].
With rapid advancement of computer simulation with GRID networking technology, such a network of mini-supercomputers around the world can also be used by researchers, even in developing countries to perform with their counterparts in developed countries for joint collaborative researches with virtual reality and virtual laboratory of various academic and engineering subjects. They can also be used in high energy, nuclear and fusion energy physics, atmospheric science, astronomical observation, geological sciences, environmental monitoring, bioinformatics, nuclear materials protection [Cole, 2005], micro-biology, meteorology, chemical molecular study, human genomics, DNA analysis, medicine/bioscience, 3D animation of human anatomy, telemedicine, agriculture, commerce, finance, nanotechnology, joint advanced engineering design, astronomy, etc. [Sterling, 2001].
In a sense, our GUS/UNESCO/UNITWIN Networking Chair project aims to construct global scale knowledge forum with advanced ICTs, i.e., with the use of massive parallel processors of globally distributed and yet interconnected mini-supercomputers through global GRID computer network. This will be a paradigm shift of research and development in global scale, out of the so-called isolated, academic “Ivory Tower” approach.
It is expected that GUS will provide the following benefits to students and participating universities:
The peace gaming of the GCEPG project can be a powerful demonstration of GRID networking technology and globally distributed computer simulation system. The similar system can also be used for joint research and development on various subjects by youngsters around the world, as fostering their creativity, and hence promoting mutual understanding among them. This is to form globally collaborative innovation networks, which will be under the auspices of the GUS/UNESCO/UNITWIN Networking Chair Program of the University of Tampere, Finland.
During the Okinawa Summit in July 2000, the Japanese government pledged US$15 billion to close the digital divide in developing countries and for the eradication of poverty and isolation. During the G8 Summit in Canada in June of 2002, and at the Environment Summit in South Africa in September of 2002 they also pledged US$2 billion to aid education and healthcare in developing countries, respectively. Early efforts have included international teleconference technology workshops that have tested the satellite/wireless technology that will be used in GUS.
GUS projects will combine (1) the Japanese government's Official Development Assistance (ODA) funds and (2) Japanese electronic equipment with (a) the Internet technology and (b) content development of North America and Europe.
The GUS program is a comprehensive and holistic approach to building smart and creative communities [Eger, 2003-a and Eger, 2003-b] in developing countries for e-learning and e-healthcare/telemedicine. Initiatives are underway to create the necessary infrastructure and educational liaisons, and some near-term educational access is expected.
GUS and GCEPG are clearly ambitious programs, one that cannot be achieved by any one group, university, or national government. The programs require substantial collaborative contribution of ideas, expertise, technology resources, and funds from multiple sources. Those who value the visions of GUS and GCEPG are invited to join this great and noble enterprise.
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Dr Takeshi Utsumi is the Founder and Vice President for Technology & Coordination of Global University System (GUS) and the Chairman of the GLObal Systems Analysis and Simulation Association in the U.S.A. (GLOSAS/USA). He is the 1994 Laureate of the Lord Perry Award for Excellence in Distance Education. His public services have included political work for deregulation of global telecommunications and the use of e-mail and voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) through ARPANET, Telenet and Internet; helping extend American university courses to developing countries; the conduct of innovative distance teaching trials with "Global Lecture Hall (GLH)TM" multipoint-to-multipoint multimedia interactive videoconferences using hybrid technologies; as well as lectures, consultation, and research in process control, management science, systems science and engineering at the University of Michigan, the University of Pennsylvania, M.I.T. and many other universities, governmental agencies, and large firms in Japan and other countries.