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From: Tak Utsumi <>
Subject: About Part I/Chapter 2 of our proposed book
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<<November 15, 1997>>

Andrew Targowski
Professor of Computer Information Systems
Telcity USA Project Director
Vice President of Information Resource Management Association
Department of Business Information Systems
Kalamazoo, Michigan 49008
Office (616) 387-5406
Fax (616) 387-5710
Book Series Editor
Global Information Technology Management
Idea Group Publishing

(1) Dear Andrew:

In my following msgs (4 parts), I am sending you my first draft of Part
1/Chapter 2 "Global Lecture Hall (GLH)."

In a separate mail, I am sending you its hard copy with

As said before, this is prepared for the CD-ROM/web of our
GLOSAS/KNOWLEDGE BASE project, pls mark off any part which is not
suitable for the hard copy book, and send me back.

This chapter particularly needs to have video-clipping of those
GLHs with CD-ROM.

Such a web approach with video-clipping would also be suitable for
the virtual book" as mentioned at the end of this chapter.

Outline of Chapter 3 may be;

(a) Rainbow bridge across the Pacific,

My comparison of eastern (Japanese, analog) and western (American,
digital) cultures with metaphor of global brain and an analogy to
hybrid computer,

(b) Inverse Pyramid,

My acceptance speech of Lord Perry Award, and explanation of
GLOSAS logo,

(c) Philosophy and principle of global electronic distance education.

Paper (co-authored with Parker Rossman et al) which was published
in a book from Pergamon,

Outline of Chapter 4 may be;

(a) Global University System,

(b) Consortium of Affordable and Accessible Distance Education

(c) Secondary School Teacher Training Program (SSTTP),

(d) Tampere workshop/conference,

Proposal for the establishments of Global Service Trust Fund and
an International Coalition for Global Information Infrastructure
in Education and Healthcare,

Chapter 5 is about Globally Collaborative Environmental Peace Gaming.

Meanwhile, I am waiting to receive any template for the book proposal
from you.

(2) Electronic colleagues:

Sorry, I cannot send you many insertions (diagrams, etc.) with this
text-oriented email system.

If you participated in our GLHs, pls check the particular one of your
involvement(s), and inform me if anything is to be revised. Thanks in

Prof. Anton Ljutic (Fax: 514-672-9299)
Social Science/Economics
Champlain College
900 Riverside Drive
St. Lambert, Quebec
514-672-7360 x280
Anton Ljutic (Fax: 613-730-2357)
85 Glen Avenue
Ottawa, Ontario K1S 2Z8
Canada K1S 2Z8

(3) Anton:

You once suggested that I should compile all GLHs.

This chapter is fairly comprehensive compilation of almost all of GLHs
in the past dozen years.

John W. Hibbs
PHONE: OFFICE: 619 270 2352
HOME TEL/FAX 619 273 4521
OFFICE FAX: 619 270 2667
Fax On Demand: LEARN DAY SUMMARY FOUR PAGES 1 619 718 3456

(4) John:

Many thanks for your msg (ATTACHMENT I).

My replies/comments are in << >>.

As mentioned in my previous msg, this chapter may be of some interest to

Mr. John McLeod (Fax: 619-277-3930)
Society for Computer Simulation International (SCSI)
8484 La Jolla Shores Drive
La Jolla, CA 92037

(5) John:

Many thanks for your valuable suggestion (ATTACHMENT II).

My replies/comments are in << >>.

Dr. Parker Rossman
3 Lemmon Drive
Columbia MO 65201
FAX: 314-876-5812 (emergency)

David Crookall
Maison des Langues
UNSA (Univ de Nice-Sophia Antipolis)
98 bd E Herriot
BP 209, 06204 Nice Cedex 3
Telephone: +33 (0); Fax: ....55.36

(6) Parker and David:

The description of our GLH in 1986 may be of some interest to you.

Roger Lee Boston
Rockwell Chair Instructor and Consultant for Creativity
Houston Community College System Distance Education/Technology Center
Office of the President
4310 Dunlavy
P. O. Box 7849
Houston, TX 77270-7849
713-718-5224 (direct)
713-265-5343 (main)
FAX: 713 718-5301
SHAREVISION# 713 866 8219 and on 24hr/day
Or 713 866 8282
ISDN #: 713-610-3223/3224
8x8 #: 713-523-6905
Page Unit 713 765 9494 and in 24hr/day
50 stream CuSeeMe reflector at with a dedicated machine and T1
The AUDIOVISION unit however is still "Waiting for a call" at -- about GLH on 8/16/96. -- PowerPoint presentation. -- for web during LEARN DAY on

W. R. (Bill) Klemm, D.V.M., Ph.D.
Professor, Dept. VAPH, Mail Stop 4458
Texas A&M University
College Station, TX 77843-4458
Forum Enterprises, Inc.
9001 Grassburr Road
P.O. Box 5755
Bryan, TX 77805-5755
409-589-2665 (home)
FAX: 409-847-8981
Demos & literature available at our WWW site: -- photo of Dr. Klemm
Web site of CAADE paper;

(7) Roger and Bill:

At the suggestion of Roger, I included our co-authored paper for
Guenther's IFIP conference in Section 2 of this chapter.

Pls read over it, and advise me if any changes are to be made.

Mr. Jim Miller (Fax: 206-283-4538)
2 Nickerson Street, Suite 100
Seattle, WA 98109
Paging: 206-955-1036
ShareVision: 206-218-0027

(8) Jim:

Many thanks for your msg about Aristotle's word!!

Looking forward to receiving your response soon,

Best, Tak

Date: Thu, 13 Nov 1997 14:02:11 -0800
From: "" <>
Subject: Just to say hi

Tak: I wanted you to know that while I think of you *very* often, -- and
*always* read *very carefully* the notes you pass on to me --, I
deliberately do not copy you with various announcements, discussions and
topics concerning Global Learn Day II. I leave you out only because I know
that you are tremendously involved in many, many activities; that you
*always* respond to my emails, when it is not necessary to do so; and that
I fear I might be bothering you with stuff you need not be bothered with.

<<Thanks for your thoughtful consideration!!>>

I would be **delighted** to have you on board in whatever capacaity you
would like; and I will certainly put you on the AfterGuard mailing list
(AfterGuard is our fancy name for those who are driving the Franklin Ship
as it gets ready for the Voyage next October 10). Those are messages that
you *might* like to read for general "Information Only" purposes.

All of us involved in LEARN DAY activities see you as "The Admiral" -

<<Thanks, it is my great honor!>>

please don't infer by my silence we don't think of you.

Let me know if you want to be included in any way...or simply want to be on
the list of Major Discussions...or left alone, except when something VERY
BIG comes up.

<<Yes, pls keep me informed with your progress -- I am very interested
in your project -- with "destructive creativity" (a term coined by
economist Schumpeter) for "mind change" (which I often mentioned in the
Chapter 1 of our book draft.>>

Kind regards,

Humbly yours,

4241 Jutland Dr. Suite 2000
San Diego, CA 92117
Headquarters of
The Franklin Knowledge Corps
TEL: 619 270 2352
FAX: 619 270 2667

"There is nothing - absolutely nothing - half so much
worth doing as simply messing about in boats."
"Wind In the Willows" - Kenneth Grahame

Date: Fri, 7 Nov 1997 08:09:07 -0800 (PST)
From: John McLeod <>
Subject: Your book

The reason, Tak, for my brief message when I got the e-mail
chapter of your book, is my admiration of your devotion to
peace and sustainable development, as well as distance education.

<<Thanks for your kind words.>>

I have rewritten footnote [33] as I would have expressed what I
believe to be your thoughts. I do not intend that you replace
what you have written; I only offer my version for comparison and
to show another way in which your thoughts might be expressed.

<<Yes, I will follow it. Thank you very much.>>

Concerning your overall chapter, I feel strongly that you should
not let others whose advice you are seeking completely eliminate
your "japan/english". I think it imparts a distinct and desirable
"flavor" to your writing, and should not be changed except in
places where it might be misleading or actually incorrect.

<<Thanks for your advice.>>

I plan to reread the rest of your chapter, and may or may not
comment further, but I wanted to get this specifically requested
part covered and to you as soon as possible.

<<Yes, if you have time, pls read it over, and point out to me any
incorrect statements -- you are a big brother to me in computer
simulation field!!>>

Best wishes for your progress with a difficult but important

OMITTED THE REST BY T. UTSUMI <<November 15, 1 997>>
* Takeshi Utsumi, Ph.D., Chairman, GLOSAS/USA *
* (GLObal Systems Analysis and Simulation Association in the U.S.A.) *
* Laureate of Lord Perry Award for Excellence in Distance Education *
* Founder of CAADE *
* (Consortium for Affordable and Accessible Distance Education) *
* President, Global University in the U.S.A. (GU/USA) *
* 43-23 Colden Street, Flushing, NY 11355-3998, U.S.A. *
* Tel: 718-939-0928; Fax: 718-939-0656 (day time only--prefer email) *
* Email:; Tax Exempt ID: 11-2999676 *
* *
* *
* *
* *


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From: Tak Utsumi <>
Subject: Part I/Chapter 2/#1 of 4 of our proposed book
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Proposed Book
„Electronic Global University System and Services¾

To be published by
Idea-Group Publishing Company
Harrisburg, PA
(In negotiation)

November 8, 1997

Takeshi Utsumi, Ph.D.
Laureate of Lord Perry Award for Excellence in Distance Education
Founder, Consortium for Affordable and Accessible Distance Education
President, Global University in the U.S.A. (GU/USA)
A Divisional Activity of GLOSAS/USA
(GLObal Systems Analysis and Simulation Association in the U.S.A.)
43-23 Colden Street, Flushing, NY 11355-3998, U.S.A.
Tel: 718-939-0928; Fax: 718-939-0656 (day time only--prefer email)
Part 1

Chapter 2


1 „Global Lecture Hall (GLH)¾ videoconferences . . . . . . . . . . 1
1.1 GLH in July, 1986 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
1.2 GLH in October, 1987 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
1.3 GLH in February, 1988 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
1.4 GLH in November, 1989 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
1.5 GLH in November, 1990 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
1.6 GLH in October, 1991 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
1.7 GLH in October, 1992 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
1.8 GLH in 1993 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
1.8.1 GLH on August 21 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
1.8.2 GLH on October 6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
1.9 GLH in July, 1994 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
1.9.1 Greetings by Dr. Colin Power of UNESCO/Paris . . . . 13
1.9.2 Premises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
1.9.3 Brief Evaluation and Comparison of Delivery Systems . 17 Plain Old Telephone Service (POTS) Units . . . . . 17 TCP/IP Oriented Internet . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 Other Delivery Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
1.9.4 Demonstrations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
1.9.5 Remarks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
1.10 GLH in October, 1995 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
1.10.1 Greetings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
1.10.2 Demonstrations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
1.11 GLH in August, 1996 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
1.11.1 Summary of achievements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
1.11.2 Delivery systems used . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
1.11.3 Programs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 Panel discussions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 Demonstrations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
1.11.4 Remarks on organizing GLH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
1.12 GLH in 1997 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
1.12.1 GLH on June 19 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 Programs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 Remarks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
1.12.2 Mini GLH on October 12 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36

2 Teleconferencing for Electronic Distance Education (EDE) . . . 38
2.1 Synchronous Televideo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
2.1.1 Non-Internet Televideo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
2.1.2 Internet Televideo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
2.1.3 Experiences at Houston Community College . . . . . . 39 With Non-Internet Televideo . . . . . . . . . . . 39 With Internet Televideo . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
2.2 Asynchronous Computer-Mediated Multimedia
Conferencing System (CMMCS) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
2.2.1 Experience at Texas A&M University . . . . . . . . . 42
2.2.2 Virtual Book . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43

REFERENCES: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
INSERTIONS (Images, graphs and diagrams, etc.): . . . . . . . . . 46
„Global Lecture Hall (GLH)¾

"For the things we have to learn before we can do them,
we learn by doing them."
Greek educator and philosopher Aristotle

1 „Global Lecture Hall (GLH)¾ videoconferences

During the second decade of GLOSAS activities from 1986, Utsumi
realized that text-oriented e-mail was not enough for distance learning,
especially in engineering and medical education which requires graphics,
images and full-color, full-motion video. He then organized and
conducted a series of videoconferences what came to be called the
"Global Lecture Hall (GLH)"(TM). It originated at university campuses
in the U.S., Italy, Brazil and Hungary, and spanned the globe. It
employed inexpensive media accessible to less developed countries. This
type of event was characterized by the involvement of participants at
many sites, using several media to facilitate interactions among them.
Participants in several countries could hear, talk, and see each other
while using affordable methods for developing countries. Our GLH has
now been well established as an annual event.

* Technologies used:

This multipoint-to-multipoint, multimedia, interactive
videoconference used Internet-based desktop conferencing packages,
telephone-based conferencing (from slow scan TV, fully integrated color,
motion, audio and whiteboard packages), computer conferencing, and
audiographic conferencing, facsimile, etc. These were done with the
combined use of various inexpensive delivery systems, e.g., Plain Old
Telephone Services (POTS), digital switched lines, Integrated Service
Digital Network (ISDN), packet-switching networks, packet-radio and
packet-satellite, and analog, digital channels on U.S. domestic
satellite, INTELSAT and INMARSAT, and so on. By these means audio,
data, text, graphics, images and video could be sent at great distance
at an acceptable cost. Some of these methods were accessible to nearly
everyone. Recent configurations combining some of the mentioned media
seemed impossibly complicated on paper but proved workable in practice.

* Purposes:

Many less developed countries lack good analog voice-grade telephone
networks and, hence, lack Internet access. Subsequently, use of
electronic distance education, though an economic advantage to them, is
not realized. Therefore, the purposes of the GLH are;

1. To promote interest of educators and decision-makers in underserved,
less developed countries in implementation of affordable and
accessible global electronic distance education across national

2. To have participants view and compare various advanced (yet
affordable) delivery systems with technical and economical pros and

3. To apply later demonstration technologies for underserved students in
rural/remote areas of the U.S. and around the world.

* Objectives:

1. Demonstrate previously unexplored hybrid configurations of various
electronic distance education course delivery technologies,

2. Offer the participants a stage for meeting at a distance and gaining
confidence in the use of several means of communication, including an
opportunity for hands-on "collaborative experiential learning" about
the technologies and their applications,

3. Gain knowledge of the different participants' countries' regulatory
environment that have thus far made sophisticated electronic distance
education inaccessible to them,

4. Demonstrate the possibility of electronic networking and the
promotion of collaborative research and development among higher
educational institutions in participants countries and later around
the world.

* Remarks:

The series of GLH events have clearly demonstrated how people could
be linked across political and geographic boundaries for joint study,
discussion, research, global problem-solving, and political action. In
so doing, they have also helped foster a participatory spirit and a
sense of transnational identity amongst participants. Moreover, the
demonstrations of the inexpensive uses of telecommunications for
educational purposes helped GLOSAS learn how to deal with technical,
regulatory and financial impediments to the creation of a workable
global electronic university network. The GLOSAS projects have shown,
combining a variety of improved and presently more affordable and
accessible technologies, that global educational exchange via
international telecommunications is a feasible endeavor. They also
helped prepare the way for global peace gaming on the scale of
Pentagon's war gaming -- more later.

Similar to the motto of the Olympics, one of the basic principles of
our GLH is "participation" (or, at least "an effort to participate") in
a global project and the use of various telecommunication media. Even
if struggling to accomplish such a feat one gains invaluable information
as well as the confidence to engage in future trials. Incidentally,
some who took part in our previous GLH took advantage of the following
event to install new facilities or test a new videoconferencing
technology -- incidentally, some of those participants received hardware
and/or software donated from commercial firms which were necessary for
their participation in our GLHs. The second principle is to have each
participant contribute to, as well as draw from, the cooperative effort
to co-produce a learning experience which surpasses the simple sum of
its parts.

Many participants of our previous GLHs appreciated their involvement
with colleagues in various countries. Such collaboration further
ensures comradeship among colleagues, an important step toward world
peacekeeping. For example, CU-SeeMe videoconferencing via Internet can
be used without software and telecommunication costs and without an
expensive studio and dish antenna. Many colleagues (such as Dr. Everett
Koop, former Surgeon General, at Dartmouth College and Dr. Peter Knight
at the World Bank, and many in Australia, Latvia, Poland, etc.) began
using CU-SeeMe on the occasion of our GLHs -- photos of the former two
appeared in TIME, October 10, 1994, Page 24. Worldwide, they helped
each other via e-mail to set it up. This activity has not only fostered
camaraderie among our project members, but also promoted the use of
videoconferencing through Internet. In many countries, it has also
increased understanding of the need for high-speed Internet lines which
enable users to retrieve advanced information in many formats (MBone and
World Wide Web (WWW), among many others). The MAVEN audio conferencing
system of CU-SeeMe has also saved considerable telephone costs for K-12
children conversing with overseas counterparts on a real-time basis.

Our GLH demonstrations in the past decade have helped build a network
of leaders in the global electronic distance education movement in many
countries. The GLH demonstrations by the GLOSAS Project have been a
most effective illustration of the capabilities available in the
interactive multimedia environment.

We were deeply grateful for generous cooperation and superb technical
support of many parties and participants of our GLHs, particularly of
those organizations which provided us with „in-kind¾ services {1}.
Followings are the brief list of GLHs in the past decade {2}.

{1} None of the GLHs were financially supported, though grant
applications were submitted to many funding sources.

{2} As can be seen in this chapter, in the past decade or so, we
conducted a series of GLHs (large or mini scale) more than 15
times. However, when we submitted in 1996 a grant application for
our Globally Collaborative Environmental Peace Gaming project to
the U.S. National Science Foundation/Partnerships in Advanced
Computational Infrastructure program, one of peer group members
declined it saying that he was skeptical with GLH.
This was another example how difficult to make "mind change"
even among prominent scientists working at a prestigious U.S.
governmental agency.
***************************FOOTNOTES ENDS

1.1 GLH in July, 1986

The GLOSAS project began with a demonstration of global-scale
peace-gaming at the conference on "Crisis Management and Conflict
Resolution" by the World Future Society (WFS) in New York City, in July
of 1986. It was one of the largest and perhaps most successful
demonstration of global gaming/simulation organized so far. The event
was a global gaming simulation sessions on a crisis scenario involving
the U.S.-Japan trade and economy issues. The multimedia
teleconferencing sessions used voice, slow-scan TV [SSTV], computer text
and data, graphics, and a simulation model. Nearly 1,500 persons took
part, in New York, Tokyo, Honolulu and at the World's Fair in Vancouver,
B.C. Fred Campano of the United Nations wrote a game scenario, and
Akira Onishi of Soka University in Tokyo supplied his FUGI model of the
world economy {3} <[1]>.

{3} The fifth generation of the FUGI model was incorporating vari-
ous sectors of resources, population, environment, energy, re-
search and development in high-tech field, security, and human
right, etc. With socio-economic and political data from 140
nations, FUGI was used by the United Nations and various govern-
ments in Japan, Europe and Asian countries for economic forecast-
***************************FOOTNOTES ENDS

Noted U.S. economists (Professor Lester C. Thurow of M.I.T., Provost
William Nordhaus of Yale, Mr. Keith Johnson of Townsend and Greenspan
Company) were panelists of this event and electronically interconnected
with Japanese counterparts (Professor Onishi of Soka University, and
President Shishido of International University) for three days of
computer-assisted negotiations. Several hypothetical policies were
examined. One question raised by Donald Straus (President Emeritus of
American Arbitration Association) was the effect of raising military
expenditures in Japan to the American level while lowering those of the
U.S. to the present Japanese level. Simulation ran overnight predicted
that the balance of trade would thus be even by the year 2000, with
necessity of cooperation, rather than competition, by both countries in
the future (Onishi, A., 1986, Nikkei Shimbun, Aug. 8, 1986). This
clearly indicated the cost and dilemma of American s nuclear umbrella
protecting Japan s economic prosperity, thus threatening American s
economic prosperity.

This gaming simulation lasted three evenings. At the end of each
session, Onishi executed new economic parameters on his FUGI model which
parameters were discussed and agreed by both parties in New York and
Tokyo, and sent his computational results back to New York at the next
session for continuing discussions. All participating sites had
Colorado Video s slow-scan image transceiver which were connected
through a telephone bridge so that all sites could receive/send their
images. Audio/voice could be sent through the same POTS line, except
while transmitting images. Onishi s computer outputs were sent to New
York by fax via another telephone line. As soon as it arrived, it was
copied to transparencies, and projected on to a large screen which was
then transmitted by the slow-scan transceiver to all participating
sites. We used real-time chatting feature of EIES for back-stage

This event with combined use of inexpensive delivery systems afforded
an opportunity to see how academic departments might become linked
across national boundaries for the purpose of joint study, research and
planetary problem-solving without expending high cost for satellite
video. After this successful sessions, several former high ranking
officers of the U.S./Japanese governmental agencies expressed their
strong interest in a similar multi-media teleconferencing on a more
regular basis to establish an early warning system of the both
countries ever-closely interwoven economic and trade relationships.
Systems analysis for systemic change at the global level is a
precondition for any significant resolution to today s global-scale
problems, as has been advocated by the GLOSAS Project since it was
originated in 1972.

From this initial effort, a series of „Global Lecture Hall (GLH)¾
(TM) has commenced, spanning many countries around the world.

1.2 GLH in October, 1987

The GLH at the 1987 WFS/Education Conference held at Massachusetts
Institute of Technology encompassed fourteen sites linked together, from
the East Coast of the U.S. to Japan, and from Anchorage, Alaska, to San
Diego, California and Honolulu, Hawaii. This spanned 14 time zones and
two calendar dates!

In keeping with the WFS theme of "Education for the Twenty-First
Century," GLOSAS previewed the "classroom of tomorrow" with discussion
on "Globalization of Higher Education Around the Pacific Basin."
Lecturers and students at widely dispersed locations in the United
States and around the Pacific "assembled" to exchange ideas. The
panelists included Takeshi Utsumi from the headquarters of the National
Technological University (NTU, which is a consortium of engineering
schools, based in Fort Collins, Colorado) at Colorado State University;
James Grier Miller, chairman of the University of the World, from the
EDUCOM Annual Conference in Los Angeles; and Lionel Baldwin, president
of the NTU, from San Francisco; Robert Muller, Honorary Chancellor of
the United Nations University of Peace in Costa Rica (former Assistant
Secretary General of the United Nations); Hazel Henderson, economist and
futurist; Glenn Olds, president of Alaska Pacific University; and Parker
Rossman -- the last four of them from M.I.T. in Cambridge,

All panelists were provided with an audio teleconferencing
connection. Their conversations were uplinked to a satellite from a
conference monitor center so that the conversation as well as panelists
video (full-motion or freeze frame) were downlinked at any other off-
site locations with their receive-only antennae. Slow-scan TV was used
in conjunction with NHK's (Nihon Hoso Kyokai = Japan Broadcasting
Corporation) leased INTELSAT satellite channel (Dambrot, Stuart M.,
1989, The Japan Times, Oct. 18) {4}. Some of panelists and off-site
participants who had a slow-scan TV unit could send/receive their
freeze-frame image via POTS to the monitor center at low cost which was
then uplinked to satellite. EIES was used for on-line, real-time
chatting for back-stage coordination to save valuable audio lines and
conference time. Facsimile communication was also used in parallel to
receive questions from off-site participants.

{4} After this event, GLOSAS arranged a donation of Colorado Video
TV unit by NHK to International University in Tokyo.
***************************FOOTNOTES ENDS

1.3 GLH in February, 1988

This GLH was during the conference of the Pacific Telecommunications
Council in Honolulu, Hawaii, on „Distance Learning Around the Pacific
Basin.¾ The teachers in the „global classroom¾ included J. O. Grantham
(founder of the National University Teleconference Network (NUTN)); C.
Urbanowitz (associate dean of the Center for Regional and Continuing
Education, California State University, Chico); J. Southworth (College
of Education of the University of Hawaii); R. Mills (assistant vice
chancellor of the California State University System); D. Wydra
(Pennsylvania Teleteaching Project); L. Baldwin (President of National
Technological University); and T. Utsumi (Chairman of GLOSAS). This GLH
encompassed 14 sites ranging from the U.S. East Coast to the Republic of
Korea, from Anchorage, Alaska to Brisbane, Australia.

During this event, we connected about a dozen Lumaphone freeze-frame
units with an AT&T s Alliance audio bridge via POTS, and found that was
too many to be handled by the bridge. However, its lunch box size and
low price (less than $700/unit) was convenient for portable use through
the POTS at low cost compared with ISDN or satellite approach. We could
hook it to regular TV monitor and even uplinked its image to satellite,
albeit black and white.

We also had several Colorado Video TV units connected via POTS
through its bridge, many sites with receive-only dish antenna via U.S.
domestic satellites, and all of them connected with audio
teleconferencing bridge via POTS for clear voice during question and
answer sessions. EIES was used for coordination to prepare and check
the inter-connectivity of the audio, slow-scan TV, full-motion
teleconferencing, and back-stage coordination with its real-time
chatting which effectively eliminated wasting air time of expensive
satellite transmission.

Dr. Baldwin s description with full-motion video was recorded a few
days prior to our demonstration. However, he could provide his answer
to a questioning person at PTC/Honolulu site from Pacific Bell
Corporation/San Ramon Valley office (nearby Berkeley, CA) through the
audio teleconferencing bridge on his way back from a business trip.
This fact vividly proved the convenience and importance of the GLH's
multipoint-to-multipoint multimedia interactive videoconferencing

We fortunately had overwhelmingly enthusiastic endorsement and
support of this demonstration as well as for the Global (electronic)
University Consortium project and participation from many educational
institutions in the Pacific area, including the Dr. Arthur C. Clarke
research center in Sri Lanka (Clarke originated the idea of a
geosynchronous communication satellite), and from Dr. Paul Baran in
Cupertino, CA, (who originated the packet-switching technology).

1.4 GLH in November, 1989

The conference site of the World Future Studies Federation in Nagoya,
Japan, was connected with Wassily Leontief (a Nobel Laureate in
economics) at New York University to discuss the relationships between
„Environment and Development¾ with Colorado Video s slow-scan TV units
via POTS line {5}. The real-time chatting feature of EIES was also used
for back-stage coordination.

{5} Utsumi previously arranged the donation of the unit by NHK to
the International University in Tokyo. He also helped to estab-
lish a global communication research center (GLOCOM) at the Inter-
national University in Tokyo with about $1.5 million dollars from
Japanese industries.
***************************FOOTNOTES ENDS

1.5 GLH in November, 1990

In order to support the efforts of Latin American distance educators,
GLOSAS/USA organized a demonstration of large scale interactive
satellite videoconference with the use of various inexpensive global
telecommunication media to show the possibilities of global education.
This was at the occasion of the XVth World Conference of the
International Council of Distance Education (ICDE) in November, 1990, in
Caracas, Venezuela, with participation of 1,300 persons from more than
80 countries. Our videoconferencing center was at William Paterson
College in New Jersey.

In this particular GLH, emphasis was placed on the use of various
inexpensive telecommunication media, particularly packet-radio and -
satellite, to show the possibilities of global education. The GLH was a
panel discussion on „Tools, Methodologies, and Principles for Global
Education in the 21st Century¾ with worldwide prominent scholars. The
event reached as far as the East Coasts of North and South America, west
to Japan, north to Fairbanks, Alaska, and south to Caracas, Venezuela.
More than 20 schools were interlinked for an interactive questions-and-
answer session.

The slow-scan TV (SSTV) videoconferencing could effectively send
images of panelists and their gathering rooms. Since most of
participating locations, particularly in overseas countries, did not
have satellite uplinking facility, SSTV was the most convenient and
inexpensive unit, and only means to broadcast their images to others.

One of significant events during this GLH was the presentation of
packet-radio and -satellite technology by Professor Gerald Knezek of the
University of North Texas. This enabled inexpensive telecommunication
for educational exchange at remote areas without use of wired telephone
networks or where the networks were poor quality, such as in Latin
American countries. With packet delivery protocols, 40 channels could
be programmed into a transponder where only one channel exited. The
major advantage was that „time-sharing¾ the same frequency by several
people (up to about 7) would reduce the cost of using the frequency with
an inexpensive transceiver at about $2,500 for each -- possibly on the
order of five or ten times less expensive than commercial communications
systems in place.

Professor Knezek demonstrated a file transfer from Western Samoa to
EIES via NASA s ATS-3 satellite free of charge. The message said that a
cyclone had interrupted most public utilities, including running water
and telephone services. The PEACESAT ATS-3 ground station, running on a
portable generator for a few hours per day, was one of the few channels
of communication to the outside world. Packet-radio allowed the memo to
be transferred to and captured in Texas, while the station at that site
was unattended. This example illustrated the potential usefulness of
packet-radio for low-cost social and disaster relief service
communications, including slow-scan TV image transmission. The system
could be especially useful in education for distributing assignments and
meeting agendas, submitting homework, and administrative activities such
as advising and enrolling students.

The other significant experience at this GLH was the clear reception
of satellite signal at Caracas gathering via a U.S. domestic satellite,
-- without going through INTELSAT satellite. Albeit one-way, this would
make it possible to send educational courses from North America to some
Latin American countries at low cost, since the former costs about one
half to one-third of the latter.

Audio and slow-scan TV videoconferencing via ubiquitously available
POTS enabled us to have participants from remote area where satellite
signal could not reach. Their use combined with the satellite was a
feature of our GLH, having enabled us to reach out to even „have-not¾
areas, i.e., not under the foot-print of the satellite. In a sense, our
demonstration was to enable the disabled (due to limitations in
equipment) to participate. We needed to face these situations as
challenges to maximize what they get from what they have. The full-
motion TV satellite systems often seemed to try to indicate that they
were the „only way to go¾ for distance education and telecommunication.
Until when prices dropped significantly, many people, especially those
overseas and in the most geographically isolated places, would have to
learn to appreciate, and make the best of, alternative forms of various
available telecommunication media.

This GLH demonstration indicated vividly the future of global
education. For example, a professor in Pensacola, Florida, received our
satellite signal at his home while he was feeding his dog and cat. He
could receive a lesson from a Japanese professor. He could raise his
question to the Japanese professor via audio or computer conference
immediately. For the same token, a person in a remote site in Venezuela
might have done similarly with his packet-radio or -satellite
transceiver. Global education could be done transcending parochialism
as well as national boundaries.

After the Caracas conference, Utsumi successfully conducted a
tutorial on the use of SprintMail -- a commercial e-mail service -- for
distance educators from various countries of the region at the Technical
Workshop on Training of Distance Education Trainers which was organized
by Universidad Nacional Abierta (UNA) and Regional Center for Higher
Education in Latin America and the Caribbean (CRESALC) of UNESCO.

The dramatic growth of distance education in Latin American countries
was in part a result of educational policies enacted at the national
level, and in part an outcome of the execution of the Organization of
American States (OAS)/PREDE Multinational Project for the Development
and Application of Distance Educational Systems. The multinational and
cooperative nature of this OAS project had another impact among the
implementing institutions: the development of an infrastructure and
expertise for cooperation, as attested by the creations of the Latin
American Cooperative Network for the Development of Distance Education
(REDLAED) in May of 1989 {6}, and of the Latin American and the
Caribbean Electronic Distance Education Consortium (CREAD) in the fall
of 1993 under the auspices of the Interamerican Organization of Higher
Education (IOHE) in 1990 with funds provided from the Canadian
International Development Agency (CIDA) {7} (Villarroel A., 1991) <[2]>.

{6} The REDLAED is a regional consortium of educational institu-
tions and professionals interested in promoting education through
the use of distance learning methods and techniques. REDLAED has
over 100 prominent college and university members. It devotes to
the planning and implementation of various forms of technical
cooperation and multinational activities to further the develop-
ment of this educational modality in Latin America and the Carib-
bean. REDLAED decided to give highest priority to four topics:
environmental problems, literacy, women's issues, and teachers
training. However, REDLAED still lacked the needed telecommunica-
tion capability to operate as a network.

{7} CREAD is also a regional consortium which allows for the par-
ticipation of North American institutions. It basically has the
same priorities indicated by REDLAED and has a permanent office at
Pennsylvania State University.
***************************FOOTNOTES ENDS

GLOSAS joined efforts with REDLAED, CREAD, PREDE, CRESALC, and many
other colleagues in the region. As the result of Utsumi's demonstration
and tutorial, the decision was made as to declare a priority interest in
the development and participation in some pilot experiences in the use
of SprintMail telecommunications network that would link, by means of
electronic messaging services, the group of key coordinators of REDLAED
and CREAD members as well as their technical advisers from Organization
of American States (OAS) and UNESCO/Venezuela. GLOSAS/USA supported
their activities with the provision of SprintMail s e-mail and fax
services free of charge for the several years which amounted almost
$75,000/month usages in commercial rates -- this was thanks to the
generous offer of US SprintMail s returning a favor to Utsumi s effort
of helping their overseas expansion, particularly to Japan, as mentioned
above. Because of this efforts, GLOSAS/USA is founding members of

1.6 GLH in October, 1991

The World Association of the Use of Satellite for Education (WAUSE)
{8} <[3]> requested GLOSAS to conduct a joint GLH from the University of
Lecce in Lecce, Italy, at the occasion of the "Computer Architecture
Conference" held at the university in October, 1991. There were four
video teleconferencings, two of them as two-way between Italy and the
United States. The conference gathering discussed the parallel
processing architecture of the so-called sixth generation computer.

{8} The WAUSE aims to guarantee an ordered development of the
application of satellite in global education and of favoring
cooperation between organizations which are active in the fields
of education and satellites. The WAUSE will not concern itself
with the production of programs, but rather with the problems
associated to worldwide promotion of education and training pro-
grams delivered via satellites. It will be a forum where solu-
tions to the legal, administrative, regulatory, economic or tech-
nical problems of using satellites for education would be identi-
fied and actions taken to solve them for the benefit of members
and to facilitate access to education in general.
The WAUSE has a strong affiliation with the Community of Medi-
terranean Universities (CMU) which has members of over 120 promi-
nent universities in Europe, Mediterranean region, Africa, Arab,
and in North America. GLOSAS/USA is one of WAUSE's founding
members, and Utsumi is one of its board members.
***************************FOOTNOTES ENDS

In the session Round-table on Satellites for Global Education,
Barry University in Florida uplinked to GALAXY-II satellite over North
America. The feed was then downlinked to an earth station of PANAM in
Florida and uplinked to the PANAM satellite over the Atlantic. It was
received by a small (2.5 meter diameter) VSAT antenna in Lecce. At the
University of Lecce, Florida s feed was mixed and uplinked to the
EUTELSAT over Europe. From there, it was downlinked in Belgrade,
uplinked to the PANAM satellite, downlinked to an earth station in
Florida and uplinked to GALAXY-II for distribution to North American
viewers. It was very complex scheme requiring the original signal to
travel a round trip of about 250,000 miles.

It connected many universities of the Community of Mediterranean
Universities (CMU) in Izmir in Turkey; Zagreb in Croatia; Budapest in
Hungary; Rome, Venice and Bari in Italy; Paris in France; etc., in
Eastern and Western Europe, Mediterranean countries and Ohio, New
Jersey, Florida, etc., in the North America. Panelists and participants
at Bell Laboratory in New Jersey and Barry University in Miami, Florida
also sent their voice or video images to the University of Lecce, so
that other downlinking participants could hear or view them (Utsumi
1991b) <[4]>.

American participants could send/receive their video and our signal
to/from PANAM satellite over the Atlantic Ocean and Europeans from a
EUTELSAT. A turn-round between them was made by Radio Televizja in
Beograd, Serbia whose service benefitted the presentation from Zagreb,
Croatia. This fact clearly showed the possibility of peaceful
collaboration with our GLH, in spite of war between Serbia and Croatia
at that time. (La Gezzetta del Mezzogiorno)

1.7 GLH in October, 1992

GLOSAS/USA organized two large scale GLHs at the occasion of the
annual international conference of International Council for Educational
Media (ICEM), a non-governmental organization (NGO) of UNESCO with
members from the Ministry of Education of over 30 countries {9}. The
GLHs were originated at the University of Central Florida in Orlando,
Florida, in October, 1992. The theme was "Global Education in the 21st
Century: Design and Delivery."

{9} ICEM was created in 1950 and is a non-profit organization which
has consultative Status A with UNESCO through the International
Council for Film and Television. There are presently over thirty
nations who belong to ICEM. Each participating nation is repre-
sented in ICEM through a designated member. In most instances,
this individual is affiliated with their nation's Ministry of
Education and is responsible for educational technology programs
within their country.
The above GLH events was held at the occasion of the ICEM
Symposium on "Design and Delivery of a 21st Century Technology
Base for Today's Learners: International Implications." The
choice of the theme reflected the concern with the disparity
between the advanced technologies being used by developed nations
and the very basic ones needed by the lesser developed.
***************************FOOTNOTES ENDS

The GLH on October 12th covered the range of North, Central and South
America, Pacific Islands, Australia, New Zealand, Far Eastern and North
Eastern Asia, and the one on October 13th the range of North, Central
and South America, Africa and Middle East, Western, Northern, Central
and Eastern Europe, the Baltics as well as the Mediterranean. We used
thirteen channels on ten satellites over five continents during this

During October 12th event, Dr. Joseph Pelton, Director of the
Interdisciplinary Telecommunications Program at the University of
Colorado, Boulder spoke on Global Satellite Education for Third World
Countries and examined the available alternatives for developing
nations and made suggestions on how to best harness the new
technologies. He was the Executive Director of INTELSAT, and during his
tenure there, he was a key person behind the development of Project
ACCESS {10}.

{10} Incidentally, the renowned Chinese TV University was created
about a dozen years ago under the provisions of Project ACCESS.
At that time, it had more than 1 million students and made use of
three transponders on INTELSAT.
***************************FOOTNOTES ENDS

Dr. Lionel Baldwin, President of the National Technological
University (NTU), Fort Collins, Colorado, then talked about the NTU s
courses which employed digital video compression technology. He
provided evidence of how this technology was both cost-effective and
viable alternative to satellite two-way video and data transmission.
The drastic cost reductions which this technology permitted ushered in a
new era of truly global, universal, satellite education. NTU was
created by him about a dozen years ago as a consortium of engineering
departments of almost 45 colleges and universities in the U.S. At that
time, NTU had almost 4,000 master degree level graduate students, and
was one of the top ten largest engineering schools in the U.S.

Dr. Norman Coombs, a Professor at the Rochester Institute of
Technology, Rochester, New York, talked about Global Empowerment of
Impaired Learners: Data Networks which Transcend Both Physical Distance
& Physical Disabilities. His concern was how technology would affect
the impaired user. This had great significance to Dr. Coombs who is
blind himself. He was the winner of several awards and the author of
many articles on the subject of the effects of new education technology
on the physically impaired. He was conducting a distance education
course for the physically impaired students at Gallaudet University in
Washington, D.C., from Rochester via computer communication.

During October 13th event, Dr. Tapio Varis, former Rector of the U.N.
University of Peace in Costa Rica, made his greeting via POTS and with
photo slides from the University of Lapland in Rovaniemi, Finland, which
is located close to the Polar Circle, while he was viewing our sessions
from OLYMPUS satellite of Italy.

On behalf of Dr. Federico Mayor, Director General of UNESCO, Dr.
Colin Power, Assistant Director General for Education at UNESCO in
Paris, spoke on UNESCO and Global Education Imperatives and outlined
the international education agenda for the 21st Century. He answered
questions via overseas telephone line from Paris {11}.

{11} Dr. Power s involvement enabled us to receive the endorsement
from the United Nations in Manhattan, New York City, for us to
have INTELSAT satellite transponders free of charge under the
Project ACCESS.
Dr. Power s involvement was realized thanks to the support by
the UNESCO/Caracas, Venezuela, which officer was one of users of
SprintMail e-mail/fax services among many colleagues in Latin
American countries for which services Utsumi arranged free of
charge, as mentioned above.
Since this event, GLOSAS received the same favor from UNESCO/Paris,
the United Nations, and subsequently INTELSAT satellite
transponders free of charge at other GLHs -- with even 6 tran-
sponders at a later GLH which could be $75,000 worth.
***************************FOOTNOTES ENDS

From the University of Lecce, Italy, Dr. Mario De Brasi, President of
the World Association for the Use of Satellites in Education (WAUSE),
and Dr. L. Ambrosi, President of the Community of Mediterranean
Universities, defined in specific terms, how the Mediterranean countries
might best avail themselves of satellite connections. Both cost and
logistics options and constraints were addressed.

In our final segment, Ms. Julie Stanfel, of the National Film Board
of Canada, and a research team from the Vivid Group in Toronto, Canada,
brought together school children from three very different locations
(Orlando/Florida, Ottawa/Canada, and Lecce/Italy) and asked them to
remotely enter and manipulate an electronically shared urban
environment. This was their newly developed "Virtual Reality" for the
joint design of a future city in the 21st century with children in
various overseas countries.

The National Film Board of Canada, in collaboration with the Canadian
Commission for UNESCO and The Vivid Group, was producing a series on
urbanization and the design of green cities. Entitled, URBAN UPDATE -
A REGIONAL DISCOVERY PROJECT, the program established a network of
groups of young people in a number of countries to investigate the
environmental and social effects of accelerating urbanization and the
need to establish strategies for sustainable cities, with greater
participation of local populations.

URBAN UPDATE was designed to provide students aged 12-17 with
opportunities to explore the cities in which they live, visually
document their findings and share them with young people around the
world using modern communications technologies.

With a unique human interface technology developed by The Vivid Group
in Canada and known as the MANDALA SYSTEM (TM), students would step into
and control virtual worlds of their urban ecosystems, live, without
physically touching anything! Viewing their own true video images
mirrored on televisions in front of them, the interaction would occur
when their images come into contact with visuals that surround them on
the TV screens, allowing the users to control and manipulate elements of
the urban environments around them, all in real time.

By exploring the elements of their own urban environments and then
defining with their peers from other countries the parameters of
habitable urban spaces, the interdependence of urbanization issues at
the global level was unfold. Then, using a virtual world telephone,
MANDALA PHONE (TM), young people in separate parts of the world was
able to step into a single virtual reality together, and interact with
one another to design the cities of the future -- together.

This was truly a great show in a Global Theater aided by the shiny
satellites as chandeliers. Children in Orlando/Florida, Ottawa/Canada
and Lecce/Italy demonstrated the use of a newly developed Virtual
Reality technology via satellites. They were the stars, the actors,
and the directors of this great show!! (TeleMedia MONITOR, November-
December, 1992)
* Takeshi Utsumi, Ph.D., Chairman, GLOSAS/USA *
* (GLObal Systems Analysis and Simulation Association in the U.S.A.) *
* Laureate of Lord Perry Award for Excellence in Distance Education *
* Founder of CAADE *
* (Consortium for Affordable and Accessible Distance Education) *
* President, Global University in the U.S.A. (GU/USA) *
* 43-23 Colden Street, Flushing, NY 11355-3998, U.S.A. *
* Tel: 718-939-0928; Fax: 718-939-0656 (day time only--prefer email) *
* Email:; Tax Exempt ID: 11-2999676 *
* *
* *
* *
* *

Originally posted at the Website: by Tina Evans Greenwood, Library Instruction Coordinator, Fort Lewis College, Durango, Colorado 81301, e-mail:, and last updated May 7, 1999. By her permission the whole Website has been archived here at the University of Tennessee server directory of GLOSAS Chair Dr. Takeshi Utsumi from August 9, 2000 by Steve McCarty in Japan.