Date: Mon, 10 Mar 1997 16:21:13 -0700
From: Tina Greenwood <>
Subject: Re: GLOSAS News, Vol. 6, No. 2 -- Contents
To: Anton Ljutic <>
Message-id: <>
Organization: Fort Lewis College
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Would you like me to include the URL for the videoconferencing article
in the contents now? I can easily do so, and I can make it clear
somehow that this is not an actual article published by us but rather an
article "associated" with this issue. Perhaps we could call it
something like "Hot Link: Videoconferencing Article Available via the
WWW" and list the author as well?



Date: Mon, 17 Mar 1997 14:07:25 -0700
From: Tina Greenwood <>
Subject: Re: Address
To: Anton Ljutic <>
Message-id: <>
Organization: Fort Lewis College
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Anton Ljutic wrote:
> Tina,
> The URL for that videoconf. article is:
> You may wish to warn the readers that the directory (succeed) has OTHER
> articles
> concerned with videoconf. demos etc.
> How is it going? Have you retrieved the Giuliano article?
> Anton

Hi, again.

OK. I'll include the info. in the contents.



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---------- Forwarded message ----------
Date: Thu, 15 May 1997 12:13:53 -0400 (EDT)
From: Edupage Editors <>
Subject: Educom Update, 15 May 1997

* E D U C O M * U P D A T E * 15 May 1997

Educom Update is an electronic information service covering news about
Educom, its member institutions, its corporate affiliates, and other
organizations that share Educom's goals for transforming education through
information technology. To submit news and calendar information, send mail


On the Net
New in Print
Of Special Interest to Librarians
Continuing Education
Position Announcements
Program Spotlight
Calendar of Events
Organizational News
EDUCOM'97 and Beyond: A Long-Range Planning Calendar


*The Library of Ideas. The Library of Ideas, a new service of the Idea
Channel (, features videos of leaders
in a wide range of disciplines discussing their research and ideas. The
videos are rich in new thinking and presented at a level understandable to
the motivated lay person. Topics range from astronomy to medical science
and speakers include Nobel Peace Prize winners Gary Becker (economics),
Norman Borlaug, Linus Pauling (chemistry), and Charles Townes (physics).
Abstracts, transcripts, and videotapes are available to order online.

*HandsOnSite. Newcomers to and students of the arts can now gain a better
understanding of the artistic process at the HandsOnSite Web site. The site
incorporates interactive techniques such as QuickTime VR, Shockwave, and
animated GIFs. Users can visit ceramic artist Roger Baumans's studio and,
in addition to other creative activities, throw a pot on a virtual potter's
wheel. Other features include an extensive listing of creative resources,
links to other Web sites, and a regularly updated list of art workshops
throughout the country. For more information or to visit HandsOnSite, see

*The Biochemical Journal Goes Online. Subscribers to the printed version of
The Biochemical Journal can now access the online version at no extra
charge. The new site permits full-text searching of papers, reviews,
research communications, and corespondence. References are linked to
Medline abstracts. Nonsubscribers, who have restricted access to the site,
are permitted to search the table of contents and abstracts, and to utilize
the twice-a-month e-mail current awareness service. For more information or
to subscribe, contact or see


*Creating the Virtual Classroom: Distance Learning with the Internet, by
Lynnette R. Porter. This new book covers the myriad issues surrounding the
design and management of distance learning programs such as the proposal
process, planning, and funding as well as techniques for evaluation and
marketing. Readers are offered in-depth coverage of communications
technology, the World Wide Web, and training plus special appendices of
newsgroups and mailing lists, Web sites, and online resources for grants
and proposals. For more information or to order see

*Information Access and Adaptive Technology, by Carmela Cunningham and
Norman Coombs, Ph.D. This new resource from the American Council on Higher
Education/Oryx Press Series on Higher Education introduces readers to the
social, economic, and legal reasons why instiutions should provide computer
access and computer-based compensatory tools to persons with disabilities.
The book provides practical guidance for those responsible for
implementing, staffing, and maintaining adaptive computing labs and
workstations in a college or university setting. For more information or to
order Information Access and Adaptive Technology in print or in ASCII
format on IBM-compatibleor Macintosh disks, call Oryx Press at 602-265-2651
or see


*Digital Conversion of Historical Documents and Books. Digital Publishing,
a division of Digital Scanning, Inc., has developed the capability to
digitally recreate authentic versions of any book, manuscript, or
historical document for publication on CD-ROM or for Web presentation. The
service preserves the original images of books and documents through a
process of high-resolution scanning and conversion utilizing Adobe PDF file
formats, an electronic format that is compatible with both Apple and
Windows operating systems. In addition to the advantages of preservation
and accessibility, digital conversion offers the ability to implement
keyword searching and establish hyperlinks within documents. For more
information, a free evaluation of materials, or to view sample pages, see


*Internet/intranet Certification and Training. Novell has added
IntranetWare CNE and Web Designer tracks to its Certified Internet
Professional certification and training program. The Certified Internet
Professional is a certification with a variety of specialties ranging from
Web designer to Web manager. The certifications are geared toward
individuals who use the Internet as an application. For those who need
in-depth training, Novell has other new programs, such as Master CNE, that
focus on the nuts and bolts of the Internet infrastructure. Novell's
Internet/intranet certification and training programs are for individuals
at every level of technology expertise. For more information, contact
Paulette Brown at (770) 222-8528 or


*Associate Executive Director of University Library/Systems Integrator,
Indiana University Purdue University Indianapolis. The successful applicant
will participate in policy making activities for the organization. This
includes responsibility for technology planning and budgeting, and
technical leadership of library information systems and services. BA/BS
required with five years as a successful manager in a technology
organization with a client-server or distributed computing environment. To
apply, send letter of application, resume, and names, addresses, and
telephone numbers of four references to Bernard Wekar, The Cambridge Group,
Ltd. 1175 Post Road East, Westport, CT 06880. Phone 800-525-3396, Fax 203-
226-3856, e-mail:, or see

*Director of Computing and Academic Services, University of Tennessee,
Knoxville. The position leads a team of more than 85 professionals in
providing computing and academic services to faculty, students, and staff
and oversees delivery and support of the help desk, computer labs,
training, campus server, equipment administration and technical support,
database management, and the student information system. Proven record of
proactive support for faculty and students, customer orientation, and
successful managerial experience including team-building, budget oversight,
and creative problem-solving skills are a must. Bachelor's degree
required.To apply, submit a cover letter detailing the strengths you will
bring to the job, a resume, and the names of three references to Search
Committee, Director of CAS, Attn: Janet Miles, The University of Tennessee,
Knoxville, 507 Andy Holt Tower, Knoxville, TN 37996-0157. Phone
423-974-3730, fax 423-974-3536, or e-mail

*Director of Information Services, Washington State University at
Tri-Cities, Richland, Washington. Successful candidate will be responsible
for computing, library, telecommunications, and media support services;
serve as Director of the Hanford Technical Library at WSU Tri-Cities; and
oversee the operation of the U.S. Department of Energy Public Reading Room.
Qualifications include a Bachelor's degree, five years experience in
administration and management with at least three years of supervisory
experience, and familiarity with academic or research library operations
including management of integrated library systems and networked
information technologies. Ability to act as an advocate or spokesperson a
plus. For a link to a full position announcement see To apply, send letter of
application, C.V., and three references including addresses and phone
numbers to Chair, Director of Information Services Search Committee,
Washington State University at Tri-Cities, 100 Sprout Road, Richland, WA
99352. Fax (509) 372-7100.

*Program Development Specialist, University of Medicine and Dentistry of
New Jersey School of Osteopathic Medicine. Responsible for supervising
student development initiatives, technology access, development training,
and curriculum integration through multimedia instructional materials and
the Web. Requirements include a Bachelor of Science degree in Educational
Psychology, Instructional Technology, Instructional Development,
Instructional Systems or other bioscience-related field; education/student
support experience; in-depth knowledge of Web development tools and
procedures, HTML, UNIX, Perl, Java and other internet protocols; and
demonstrated experience with the uses of computers in the academic medical
environment. For more information or to apply, contact Monica Caione, UMDNJ
Human Resources, 40 East Laurel Road, Stratford, NJ 08084.


*Focus on Partnerships: Thinking Outside of the Box. Offered by the CAUSE
Management Institute and created for managers and directors of information
resources in higher education, this program focuses on the possible
collaboration between departmental staff and staff from the central
information technology organization. Faculty is culled from a variety of
areas including academic computing and support services, library
management, business administration, and national networking; and have
built a curricula -- emphasizing partnerships -- that includes such
programs as Building Interdisciplinary Teams, Planning and Assessment in a
Partnered Campus Environment, and Managing Change in Complex Campus
Environments. For more information, call 303-449-4430, e-mail, or see

CALENDAR OF EVENTS [For an expanded listing of conferences, seminars,
workshops, and other events, see

*Fifth Annual Conference on Datafication-Shaping the Internet for Business,
Education, and Community: The New Electronic Commons. Sunday, May
18-Tuesday, May 20, 1997. Great Valley Campus of Pennsylvania State
University. Contact:

*Technology Forecasting Workshop. May 19-21, 1997. The Renaissance Hotel,
Austin, Texas, U.S.A. Contact:

*learning.teaching.interacting@hyperspace/ - The Potential of the Web. May
19-21, 1997. Inn and Conference Center, College Park, Maryland, U.S.A.

*CIT'97: Learning with Technologies, Design, Implement, and Assess-The
Sixth Annual SUNY FACT Conference on Instructional Technologies. May 27-29.
SUNY College at Brockport, NY, U.S.A. Contact:

*Information Privacy, Security, and Data Integrity: American Society for
Information Science '97 Mid-Year Meeting. May 30-June 4, 1997. Scottsdale,
Arizona, U.S.A. Contact:

*ED-MEDIA 97: World Conference on Educational Multimedia and Hypermedia.
June 1997. University of Calgary, Calgary, Canada. Contact:

*ACM SIGCSE/SIGCUE: ITiCSE'97: Integrating Technology into Computer Science
Education. June 2-4, 1997. Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden. Contact:

*The Evolution of Publishing: Strategies for Success - 19th Annual Meeting
of the Society for Scholarly Publishing. June 4-6, 1997. JW Marriott,
Washington, D.C., U.S.A. Contact: 303-422-3914.

*Association for Media and Technology in Education in Canada: AMTEC '97
Conference. June 4-8, 1997. Saskatchewan, Canada. Contact:

*Association for Small Computer Users in Education 1997 Annual ASCUE Summer
Conference: IT for the Whole Campus. June 8-12, 1997. Ocean Creek
Plantation, Myrtle Beach, South Carolina, U.S.A. Contact: Chris Schwartz at
216-449-4471, (fax) 216-449-6105, or

*Medical Information Security Conference. June 12-13, 1997. Arlington,
Virginia, U.S.A. Contact: National Computer Security Association,

*IEEE Sixth International Workshop on Enabling Technologies: Infrastructure
for Collaborative Enterprises (WET ICE '97). June 18-20, 1997. MIT,
Cambridge, Massachusetts, U.S.A. Contact:

*Institute for Distance Learning Workshop: What's Happening In Distance
Education - Planning a Distance Education Initiative. June 21-26, 1997.
Portland-Rockport-Augusta, Maine, U.S.A. Contact: call 207-621-3408, e-mail or visit

*Technology Forecasting for the Telecom Industry: A Three-Day Course. June
22-24, 1997. SIr Francis Drake Hotel, San Fransisco, California, U.S.A.

*INET'97 - The Internet: The Global Frontiers. June 24-27, 1997. Kuala
Lumpur, Malaysia. Contact:

*National Educational Computing Conference: Potlatch. June 30-July 2, 1997.
Washington State Convention & Trade Center, Seattle, Washington, U.S.A.
Contact: Tony Jongejan tel: 360-650-3090, fax: 360-650-6526,


*Strategic Planning. At a recent meeting of the CAUSE Board of Trustees, it
was suggested that both the Educom and CAUSE boards meet to discuss common
strategic interests. The meeting is scheduled to take place immediately
prior to the Educom Board of Trustees strategic planning session in June in


For detailed information about future Educom conferences, contact Educom at
202-872-4200 or e-mail

*EDUCOM'97, October 28-31, Minneapolis, Minnesota

*EDUCOM'98, October 13-16, Orlando, Florida

*EDUCOM'99, October 26-29, Long Beach, California

*EDUCOM'2000, October 17-20, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania

*EDUCOM'2001, October 30-November 2, Indianapolis, Indiana

To subscribe to Educom Update, send a message to
and in the body of the message type: subscribe update (your name).

To unsubscribe to Educom Update, send a message to
and in the body of the message type: unsubscribe update.

Educom -- Transforming Education Through Information Technology


Date: Tue, 20 May 1997 08:54:49 -0600
From: Tina Greenwood <>
Subject: GN & "shrinking" text
Message-id: <>
Organization: Fort Lewis College
MIME-version: 1.0
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Greetings, Tak. My replies follow below in [[ ]].

> Tak and Anton, it would very much help if you would forward to me names of
> people you would suggest as contributors (a limited number, periodically)
> <<You may ask those authors of paper contributors for our book
> publishing project -- see their list in your web, and if you have
> lost their addresses, I would be happy to supply them to you
> again.>>

[[ I will make a note of it. Thanks for the suggestion. ]]

> as well as clearly labeled news items you'd want to be sure were included.
> I can shape them up from your e-mailed messages.
> <<You may excerpt from the narrative of our SSTTP project which full
> proposal was submitted to the Dept of Education, and which was
> distributed a couple of weeks ago.
> Sylvia Charp, Chief Editor of T.H.E. Journal, asked me to send her
> 1,500 words article. (The narrative is about 9,500 words.) If you
> shrink it, I will send to her.>>

[[ How soon were you hoping to give the shortened version to Sylvia? I
think I still have a copy, but I will let you know if I do not. ]]

> I would like to continue publishing the Web version; what are your
> thoughts on the e-mailed version? The shortened e-mailed version that
> Anton devised is appealing to me.
> <<That is a very good issue -- you could have stressed that it was
> the first multimedia newsletter, if the reader accessed the web
> site. I thank you both, Tina and Anton, for the excerpts -- it
> would have taken a long time to make them out of the original.>>
> <<BTW, one of contributors in that issue was Vice Giuliano.
> You may access his "The ever-diminishing importance of nations
> and national borders" in
> <> -- you
> would need to register (free of charge) first to
> <>, if you haven't done so yet. You may
> mention of this in your next issue.>>

[[ Will do. This sounds like a fascinating site! I'll have to check it
out. ]]

> As for the hard copy, it could be printed directly from the Web if you
> would like to save yourself some time.
> <<I tried that, but we better keep the original style with its logo
> which Anton made some years ago.>>

[[ That is certainly fine with me. Tak, will you be continuing to
produce the hard copy as in the past? I can put togeter the e-mail
version (summaries of items included in the full Web version) and the
Web version. ]]

> I can continue to use the site at WIU to house the electronic archive, but
> I may want to move the Web archive to Fort Lewis College as soon as we
> have our library Web server up.
> <<Or, you may use UTK/solar system which access account I gave to
> you before -- though it doesn't much matter where they are, since
> they can be hyperlinked easily.>>

[[ For me, it would be best to use the Fort Lewis site since I will be
here for a long time (I'm assuming) and since I will know all the
policies associated with the server. My husband, Allen, will be
building the server this summer. In the future, we could have more
opportunities to do experimental things with it if we wanted to since I
would be able to work that out with Allen and the library here. ]]

> I would, of course, notify both of you and leave appropriate pointer pages
> at the old site to allow people to locate the pages at Fort Lewis.
> <<Pls do so, also, for the FTP sites at Champlain College which
> Anton originally stored early issues of GLOSAS NEWS.>>

[[ Yes, I should refer to those from the existing pages now. I will
make that change soon. ]]

> <<Thank you again for your cooperation.

[[ It's my pleasure. I admire the goals of GLOSAS and enjoy taking a
part in working toward them. ]]

> Oh, BTW, I would appreciate it very much if you can compose a short
> notice of moving the distribution site of GLOSAS NEWS to UTK/solar
> system, so that I can notify it to the old list members at McGill --
> though this is not so urgent.>>

[[ Certainly. I'll be looking at beginning production of the next issue
early next month. What I intend to do is to file away this message so
that I can remember all the details of what needs to be done. If
anything can't wait until then, please do let me know. ]]

[[ Hope you are enjoying spring up where you are. It's getting quite
nice around here! ]]



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Date: Tue, 20 May 1997 17:36:43 -0400
From: Tak Utsumi <>
Subject: Web site of our CAADE paper
To: Multiple recipients of list <>
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<<May 20, 1997>>

W. R. (Bill) Klemm, D.V.M., Ph.D.
Professor, Dept. VAPH, Mail Stop 4458
Texas A&M University
College Station, TX 77843-4458
Forum Enterprises, Inc.
9001 Grassburr Road
P.O. Box 5755
Bryan, TX 77805-5755
409-589-2665 (home)
FAX: 409-847-8981
Demos & literature available at our WWW site:
Web site of CAADE paper;

Dr. Louis Padulo
President Emeritus
University City Science Center
3624 Market Street, First Floor East
Philadelphia, PA 19104
Fax: 215-382-0056

Ms. Tina Evans Greenwood
Library Instruction Coordinator
Fort Lewis College
612 East 32nd Street
Durango, Colorado 81301-81301
Fax: 970-247-7149

Professor Alfred Bork
Professor Emeritus
Educational Technology Center
Information and Computer Science
444 Computer Science, Building 302
University of California
Irvine, Ca 92717-3425

Dear Electronic Colleagues:

(1) Bill Klemm:

Many thanks for your 5/16th msg (ATTACHMENT I). Thank you very much for
your effort for this paper preparation.

(2) Electronic Colleagues:

This is a very comprehensive paper Bill prepared about our Consortium
for Affordable and Accessible Distance Education (CAADE), which paper
was published in Journal of Instructional Science and Technology, Vol.
2, No. 1, May, 1997.

I would like to highly commend you to visit the web site indicated in

ATTACHMENT II is an excerpt from this web site -- only main part
of the paper.

(3) Louis Padulo:

Your phone call the other day asked CAADE's web site. Pls visit this.

(4) Tina Greenwood:

Pls link this web to your web site for GLOSAS NEWS.

(5) Prof. Bork:

Many thanks for your very interesting paper for T.H.E. journal and
others which I received yesterday. I am start reading them with great

Referring to the former "The Future of Computers and Learning," you may
be interested in visiting this CAADE web site.

BTW, I would like to invite your paper contribution to our book
publishing project "Electronic Global University System and Services"
(Idea-Group Publishing). Should you accept this invitation, pls send me
(a) outline of your paper contribution in a half to 2/3 page long, (b)
your brief descriptive bio in half page long (both single spacing). Pls
visit <> for
the outline of the book.

Best, Tak

Date: Fri, 16 May 1997 17:25:28 -0400
From: William Klemm <WKLEMM@CVM.TAMU.EDU>
Subject: LEARN Day Content -Reply

Our paper just got published. You can view it at:


Affordable and Accessible Distance Education: A Consortium Initiative

W. R. Klemm, D.V.M., Ph.D.
Professor, Texas A&M University

Takeshi Utsumi, Ph.D.
President, Global University in the U.S.A.

[Return to Contents] Return to Contents Page



The promise of electronic distance education will not be realized until we
overcome the widespread lack of accessibility to electronic communication
technology. Even when the technology is accessible, many people,
particularly in less developed countries, cannot afford it. To address these
pressing needs on a global scale, a group of concerned educators met in
January, 1995 at the University of Tennessee, Knoxville, to form the
Consortium for Affordable and Accessible Distance Education (CAADE). CAADE's
vision is a flexible high-performance electronic communications
infrastructure that can be tailored to integrate technologies for mass
delivery of instructional materials with those for facilitating
student-to-teacher and student-to-student interactions.

Strategies must vary from country to country, depending on culture, economy,
and infrastructure. CAADE's research and development efforts help to
identify the appropriate mix of satellites, telephone, wireless, and cable
and computer-based communication. CAADE projects aim to demonstrate
distributed electronic communication technologies that can be configured to
1) provide mass instruction with pre-packaged materials that coexist with
and complement highly individualized instruction, 2) combine wireless and
wireline technologies into an integrated system at reasonable cost at almost
any site, and 3) promote experiential and collaborative learning.

Short-term goals are to demonstrate single, integrated distance education
systems that have the following features:

* appropriate for each given cultural and economic situation
* synchronous delivery of "special event" programming
* asynchronous delivery of pre-packaged lessons, simulations and
* just-in-time access to presentation and self-teaching materials
* interactive teacher-student sessions
* collaborative learning activities among geographically dispersed

Affordable and Accessible Distance Education: A Consortium Initiative

Humankind is taking the next step in social and economic evolution -- that
of a global information society and economy. Information is already becoming
the foundation of wealth. Neither nations nor cultures can thrive if they
fail to keep abreast of the rapid advances in modern agricultural production
and management, environmental protection, manufacturing technology,
medicine, and economic and political infrastructure. Beyond material
well-being, we would hope that increasing interaction of distinctive
cultural traditions will progressively enrich mutual understanding,
tolerance, cooperative enterprise, and peace.

Into this emerging global information environment steps the Consortium for
Affordable and Accessible Distance Education (CAADE). Today's "have nots" do
not have affordable or accessible opportunities to participate. Even in
advanced countries, many disadvantaged areas are being left behind in the
information revolution. Does it matter? Yes, this new telecommunication age
could revolutionize national culture and even economies. For example, people
in small towns and villages around the world may find it possible to work
from their home base, rather than migrate to the already overcrowded and
polluted cities.

Interactive, multimedia electronic distance education (EDE) is recognized as
the most promising way to deliver information to widely distributed
populations. EDE is in great demand in rural and remote areas of the U.S.,
states of the former Soviet Union, and in less developed countries.


CAADE is a consortium of educational institutions, national and
international government and quasi-government agencies, foundations, and
private profit and non-profit corporations. Its members represent prominent
organizations and institutions.

List of Participating Members

What makes CAADE unique is that it is a broad-based, world-wide consortium
that focuses on the power and potential of telecommunications technologies
to make education accessible and affordable. Our group is interested in
combining mass and individualized technologies to make them inexpensive and
accessible anywhere around the world.


CAADE's mission is to promote development and implementation of emerging
communication technologies to increase access to educational opportunity and
to do so in ways that will reduce cost and improve productivity and
effectiveness, wherever people are who must rely on distance education.

We predict that these new global electronic technologies will significantly
change the way people are educated and trained. Electronic distance
education (EDE) will complement and supplement face-to-face classroom-based
education, assist in reducing educational costs, and make education more
accessible to a wider audience.

To address telecommunications needs of underserved learners, CAADE will
develop and demonstrate high-performance electronic communications systems
that combine the power of computers via telephone, local-area networks,
low-to-medium speed terrestrial Internet and wireless telecommunications and
digital satellites. This integrated approach to EDE uses more than one
delivery and distribution platform, integrating mass delivery of
instructional materials via satellite or Internet with innovative low-cost
options for terrestrial feedback and interaction using Internet, telephone
lines, and wireless telecommunications. The result will be increased access
to richer learning environments while enhancing interactivity and sharing of
information among teachers and students.

CAADE will emphasize the collaborative use of computer capabilities (e.g.,
virtual seminars, laboratories, application/simulation programs) by
geographically dispersed students and colleagues. We hope to identify and
develop promising technologies that enrich pedagogy, technologies that can
be used in ways to promote critical thinking skills, problem solving,
collaborative experience, and collegiality in the learning community.

Technology now allows instruction to emanate from the teacher's desktop
computer. Low-cost interactive desktop televideo systems for the PCs
operating on the Internet or via telephone lines are becoming available
commercially (Currid, 1995). These video products come as easy-to-install
kits, but costs can be prohibitive.

Click here to see a summary of more than 45 televideo systems

Using such systems is best done over high-speed lines of the Internet.
However, Internet service is not readily available in underdevelop areas of
the world. Where telephones are used, these videoconferencing systems
operate most effectively over digital (ISDN) lines, which are not only
expensive (often $100 or more per month plus several hundred dollars for
installation), but also are not readily available, even in major cities of
developed countries.

In addition to a system for instructional delivery, EDE students should have
access to a "virtual campus." Like students on the "real" campus, distance
students need not only opportunities to interact with teachers and to learn
symbiotically from peers, but they also need libraries, lounges for
socialization, and counseling centers.


The new electronic distance education technologies make it possible to
implement delivering instruction on a large, world-wide scale. Multimedia
EDE is becoming a practical reality. Also, CAADE is committed to improving
what happens "at the other end" of the delivery pipeline, the "learner end,"
which is at the heart of learning. [Image]

Fig. 1. Traditional EDE efforts often put the emphasis on electronic
delivery systems for slickly packaged instructional material. Distance
education has two components, teaching and learning. What happens at the
other end of the instructional delivery pipeline, i.e., the learning, is
greatly influenced by how much interactions students have with the
instructor and with each other.

One dominant distance education model involves lesson delivery as one-way
video broadcasts, with a return telephone path for questions and feedback.
While live telephone call-ins from students at remote sites is better than
no teacher-student interaction, it greatly restricts the number of students
that can give feedback during any given class. There is often no convenient
way for students to send questions to the instructor, to share ideas among
themselves after the scheduled broadcast time or to access other relevant
information. Any follow-on learning activities encouraging students to work
collaboratively are difficult to manage. What is needed is an affordable,
highly interactive, well-integrated and easy-to-use approach to closing the
loop between mass delivered and highly personalized communication and

EDE instructional delivery systems have typically operated in a same-time,
same-place way. Televideo lectures, we believe, can now be supplemented by
follow-on learning activities. Creating collaborative learning opportunities
is especially crucial, because distance-education students are often
relatively isolated and do not have the same chances to interact with
professor and peers as in traditional classrooms.

To promote interactivity among students and teachers and to leverage teacher
effort by promoting collaborative learning among students, the CAADE effort
will incorporate instructional delivery via collaboration software. An
increasingly popular EDE strategy is the use of collaboration software to
allow students and faculty to interact either synchronously or
asynchronously (Acker, 1995). There is growing awareness that computer
conferencing is also an ideal environment for facilitating small-group
collaborative learning (also variously called "team learning," "cooperative
learning") (Klemm, 1995). This requires conferencing software that creates a
collaborative environment for constructivist learning, i.e., students work
together to construct their own knowledge and information to help each other
learn and understand. In short, they do more than just chat electronically.
They produce academic deliverables.

CAADE Technologies and Demonstration Projects

CAADE must be flexible to achieve its goals. Each underserved area or nation
has its own unique communication infrastructure, and the economic incentives
and capability for investing in communication technology will vary.
Technologies that may be too expensive today, may not be tomorrow. We may
interface "low-tech" teaching technologies in underserved areas with
"hi-tech" technologies originating from advanced societies. And so, CAADE is
always open to considering a wide range of technologies, although the focus
will be on identifying workable solutions at prices that the underserved can


CAADE has not made a commitment to any single technology. Indeed, the
philosophy is to use whatever mix of technologies is appropriate for a given
situation. However, Fig. 2 shows one example of how satellite, internet,
telephone, and radio technologies can be combined in a flexible, hybrid
communication system that accommodates the full spectrum from instructional
delivery to feedback to collaborative learning.

[Image] Fig. 2.

Instructional delivery begins with an instructor using
ShareView to transmit teaching materials via satellite and telephone lines
to multiple schools. Alternatively, instructional delivery can be achieved
via CU-SeeMe or other such software via the Internet. At the receiving
schools, a digital projector can display the instruction in real time in a
traditional classroom.

One or more of the schools may have a LAN and file server to accommodate
student asynchronous conferences and post-instructional learning activities
via the collaboration software, FORUM. Each LAN's server has a connection to
the Internet, so that instructional materials and references that are at
various Web sites can be hyper-linked into local conferences. Each LAN can
be accessed via modem or packet radio. Other schools may have only a single
file-server PC that acts as host for FORUM conferencing via modem or packet


The CAADE program design and delivery capacity is wide and deep. The
individuals and organizations involved have extensive resources (people,
archives, curriculum, previously produced programs, technology) that enable
design, development, and delivery of EDE for: K-12 (including advanced
placement and specialized offerings), vocational/technical needs, community
college programs, certificate programs, short courses and workshops,
workplace education, informal educational enrichment, higher education
academic credit courses, and issue-based offerings appropriate to a global

The participating institutions operate from the following set of

1. There is a need for follow-up of traditional satellite or Internet
delivery systems.
2. The computer can integrate satellite, cable, ordinary telephone
service, or radio.
3. Today's crude e-mail and one-way video/two way audio systems are
precursors to a fully integrated, ubiquitous, supportive, collaborative
learning infrastructure.
4. Students need collaborative interaction opportunities among themselves
and with other human resources beyond a single teacher/lecturer.
5. Educators must be active participants in developing the context,
content and processes essential to catalyzing the EDE revolution.


We believe that electronic distance education can - and must - be made
accessible and affordable in rural and undeveloped parts of the world. Our
consortium is committed to testing a variety of hybrid technologies that are
suited for specific needs and conditions in underserved user communities. We
believe that we are pursuing options that will provide complete, integrated
educational systems for underserved communities at costs low enough to
encourage implementation.


How the lead author can be contacted


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Created by:
Last Modified: 8 May1997
E-mail to: Olugbemiro Jegede or Som Naidu
University of Southern Queensland
* Takeshi Utsumi, Ph.D. *
* Laureate of Lord Perry Award for Excellence in Distance Education *
* Founder of CAADE *
* (Consortium for Affordable and Accessible Distance Education) *
* President, Global University in the U.S.A. (GU/USA) *
* A Divisional Activity of GLOSAS/USA *
* (GLObal Systems Analysis and Simulation Association in the U.S.A.) *
* 43-23 Colden Street, Flushing, NY 11355-3998, U.S.A. *
* Tel: 718-939-0928; Fax: 718-939-0656 (day time only--prefer email) *
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Originally posted at the Website: by Tina Evans Greenwood, Library Instruction Coordinator, Fort Lewis College, Durango, Colorado 81301, e-mail:, and last updated May 7, 1999. By her permission the whole Website has been archived here at the University of Tennessee server directory of GLOSAS Chair Dr. Takeshi Utsumi from August 9, 2000 by Steve McCarty in Japan.