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Date: Wed, 16 Jul 1997 15:04:53 -0400 (EDT)
From: Tak Utsumi <utsumi@solar.cini.utk.edu>
Subject: Final of outline
To: Mike Jensen <mikej@wn.apc.org>, Tina Greenwood <greenwood_t@FORTLEWIS.EDU>
Cc: Utsumi Takeshi <utsumi@columbia.edu>
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<<July 16, 1997>>

Mike Jensen
Box 18866
Hillbrow 2038
Johannesburg
South Africa
Tel: +27-11-614-8231 or +27-475-441-351 or +27-82-574-6035 (cellular)
Fax: +27-11-492-1058
Eml: mikej@wn.apc.org
http://www3.wn.apc.org/africa

Ms. Tina Evans Greenwood
Managing Editor, GLOSAS News and
Library Instruction Coordinator
Fort Lewis College
612 East 32nd Street
Durango, Colorado 81301-81301
970-259-1345
970-247-7684
Fax: 970-247-7149
greenwood_t@fortlewis.edu
mfteg@uxa.ecn.bgu.edu

(1) Mike:

Many thanks for your prompt reply of 7/16/97.

Pls shoot the end of August for your full paper. Thanks.

(2) Tina:

Pls include this in the web of our book publishing project, after
checking it from your editorial viewpoint.

Thanks in advance.

Best, Tak
**************************************
A Guide to Improving Internet Access in Africa
with Wireless Technologies

Study made for
International Development Research Center (IDRC) of Canada
(August 31st 1996)

Index:
Preface
Introduction
The Radio Spectrum
Regulating the Use of Radio Frequencies
Wireless Applications
Fixed Microwave Multi-Channel Trunk Carrier Services
Long Distance Terrestrial HF Radio Networks
Geostationary Satellites
Satellite Equipment and Services
Geostationary Satellite Operators in Africa
Non-Geostationary Orbit (NGSO) Satellites
Short Distance Local Loop Technologies
Cellular Telephony (point-to-multipoint systems)
Packet Radio
Narrowband Packet Radio
Wideband/Spread Spectrum Packet Radio and Wireless LANs
Microwave Data Systems
Fibreless Optical Systems
Digital Radio Trunking Systems
Data Broadcasting
New Information Highway Wireless Local Loop Proposals

Preface
The use of radio frequencies for wireless communications has
advanced extremely rapidly over the past few years resulting in an
explosion of possibilities for improving communications infrastructures
worldwide. In Africa in particular, wireless technologies are seen as one
of the most important ways of addressing the needs of a continent with the
least developed telecommunication system in the world.

Wireless systems also have a special role to play in meeting data
communication needs and the spread of the Internet has placed further
demands for widely accessible and reliable high-bandwidth circuits on a
generally overburdened and unstable infrastructure. However radio based
solutions are being considered so frequently for improving basic
telecommunication infrastructure that wireless access to the Internet
should also be looked at in a wider context of the provision of systems to
assist the public network in providing access to both voice and data.

This report attempts to identify the opportunities for using
wireless technologies for Internet access in this context and should be
of interest to international agencies planning development assistance
projects in the region as well as Telecommunication Operators, Internet
Service Providers and end-users. In the developed countries many wireless
technologies are being developed to meet the demand for mobile computing.
Although many of the systems discussed can also provide mobile Internet
connections, in Africa these needs are far lower and so less attention is
given to this area in the report.

Wireless solutions usually rely on proprietary hardware and software
platforms developed by a particular company - the development of open
standards is still at a very early stage and so in most cases it is
mandatory to use the same company's products at each end of a link. With
this sort of limitation in the competitive environment between suppliers
and the great variety in types of connections, equipment and protocols,
choosing a system can be difficult and there are few ongoing forums to
improve information exchange. As a result there is a strong thread of
product information in this report and an extensive list of contact
addresses and information resources on the Internet dealing with wireless
technologies are included in the Appendix.
**************************************

Biography of Michael Jensen

A South African, Michael Jensen has experience in 30 countries in
Africa assisting with the establishment of Internet and computer based
communications systems over the last 10 years. Originally a research
biologist, Mr. Jensen then worked as a journalist on the Rand Daily Mail
in Johannesburg. He moved to Toronto, Canada in 1985 and co-founded the
country's national non-governmental computer communications network - The
Web. Since 1990 he has worked as an independent consultant based in
Johannesburg. He was one of the principal contributors to President
Nelson Mandela's Telcom95 keynote speech in Geneva and is a member of the
African Conference of Ministers High Level Working Group which developed
the African Information Society Initiative (AISI) adopted by the
Conference of Ministers in May 1996.

Mr. Jensen is currently working on a UNESCO/ITU/IDRC joint
initiative to establish rural multi-purpose telecenters in 4 African
countries. One of the project's aims is to strengthen the national public
library organizations and to develop electronic library facilities
relevant to the needs of the rural population.
**************************************

Address

Mike Jensen
Box 18866
Hillbrow 2038
Johannesburg
South Africa
Tel: +27-11-614-8231 or +27-475-441-351 or +27-82-574-6035 (cellular)
Fax: +27-11-492-1058
Eml: mikej@wn.apc.org
http://www3.wn.apc.org/africa
**********************************************************************
* Takeshi Utsumi, Ph.D. *
* Laureate of Lord Perry Award for Excellence in Distance Education *
* Founder of CAADE *
* (Consortium for Affordable and Accessible Distance Education) *
* President, Global University in the U.S.A. (GU/USA) *
* A Divisional Activity of GLOSAS/USA *
* (GLObal Systems Analysis and Simulation Association in the U.S.A.) *
* 43-23 Colden Street, Flushing, NY 11355-3998, U.S.A. *
* Tel: 718-939-0928; Fax: 718-939-0656 (day time only--prefer email) *
* INTERNET: utsumi@columbia.edu; Tax Exempt ID: 11-2999676 *
* FTP://champlaincollege.qc.ca (IP 198.168.102.231) *
* http://www.wiu.edu/users/milibo/wiu/resource/glosas/cont.htm *
* http://www.friends- *
* partners.org/oldfriends/education/globaluniv/synopsis.html *
**********************************************************************

--Boundary_(ID_3BW5NRtoS2cSqQXeCWd4Ow)

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From: Mike Jensen <mikej@wn.apc.org>
Subject: Re: Next-to-final outline of your paper
In-reply-to: <Pine.GSO.3.95.970715151020.6590A-100000@solar.cini.utk.edu>
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Hi Tak,
outline looks fine..
>
> Pls provide us with your full address (affiliation name, snail mail
> address, phone/fax, etc.).

Mike Jensen
Box 18866
Hillbrow 2038
Johannesburg
South Africa
Tel: +27-11-614-8231 or +27-475-441-351 or +27-82-574-6035 (cellular)
Fax: +27-11-492-1058
Eml: mikej@wn.apc.org
Fax: http://www3.wn.apc.org/africa

> Pls also start working on its full paper.
Will do..
when will you request it?

> and the great variety in types of connections, equipment and protocols,
> choosing a system can be difficult and there are few ongoing forti to
> improve information exchange. As a result there is a strong thread of
> <<Mike:
> What is "forti" above? -- I could not find it in my dictionary.>>
sorry, this should have been forii or forums..

Best,
Mike

--Boundary_(ID_3BW5NRtoS2cSqQXeCWd4Ow)

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Date: Thu, 24 Jul 1997 13:48:34 -0400 (EDT)
From: Tak Utsumi <utsumi@solar.cini.utk.edu>
Subject: Final of outline
To: Tina Greenwood <greenwood_t@FORTLEWIS.EDU>
Cc: Utsumi Takeshi <utsumi@columbia.edu>,
Walter van Opzeeland <w.vanopzeeland@mail.pci.co.zw>,
Marcel Kooiman <m.e.kooiman@student.utwente.nl>
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<<July 24, 1997>>

Ms. Tina Evans Greenwood
Managing Editor, GLOSAS News and
Library Instruction Coordinator
Fort Lewis College
612 East 32nd Street
Durango, Colorado 81301-81301
970-259-1345
970-247-7684
Fax: 970-247-7149
greenwood_t@fortlewis.edu
mfteg@uxa.ecn.bgu.edu

Marcel Kooiman and Walter van Opzeeland
University of Twente
Enschede, The Netherlands
m.e.kooiman@student.utwente.nl
w.vanopzeeland@student.utwente.nl
OR;
Telecommunications Foundation of Africa
P.O.Box
Nairobi, Kenya
tfa@arcc.or.ke

Dear Tina:

(1) Attached below is the final version of the outline of the paper by
Marcel Kooiman and Walter van Opzeeland.

(2) Pls include it in your web site of our book publishing project.

(3) I expect to receive their full paper by the end of August.

Thanks in advance.

Best, Tak
**************************************

Datacasting, Proposed Plan for Africa

Research was performed in Kenya and Zimbabwe from June to September
of 1996 on the possibilities of data broadcasting to provide information
to organizations in the education, healthcare and agriculture sectors in
sub-Saharan Africa. The commercial sector, including Internet service
providers, was also involved in this research.
Datacasting is the transmission of data via radio, TV or satellite.
Digital information can be inserted into existing broadcasts or can be
disseminated through a dedicated channel. Research revealed that the most
promising applications for datacasting are in the educational and
healthcare sectors where it is beneficial to disseminate the same
information to a relatively large number of destinations.
Feasibility was determined by investigating four factors:
marketability, legality and technological and financial requirements.
Datacasting seems feasible, depending on two yet unknown factors: the
price the broadcasting organization will charge for the provision of
datacasting services and the attitude of governments toward this service.
Currently, broadcasting and telecommunication organizations in many
countries are in a process of liberalization and privatization, so they
are searching for various ways to increase their revenue. Providing
datacasting services is interesting to them.
Based on this feasibility study it can be concluded that datacasting
seems a promising opportunity to improve the dissemination of information
in sub-Saharan Africa. This conclusion resulted in a strategy consisting
of three steps. The first step is to initiate a pilot project in order to
test datacasting in practice. This step requires cooperation of the
government and the broadcaster and financial support. Kenya offers, for
two reasons, the best option to start a pilot project. In Kenya, a number
of interesting datacasting applications were found. Furthermore, the
Telecommunication Foundation of Africa (TFA) is located in Kenya, and it
can perform a leading role in the market development of datacasting. The
most appropriate transmission medium is the television channel. Empty
lines in the television signal (Vertical Blanking Interval) can be used to
disseminate information country wide. The pilot project will end with a
business plan for the second step which is to start a datacasting service
provider for the health and educational sectors. The third step is to
investigate other datacasting opportunities, for example, the use of free
capacity of satellites to datacast information to fill cache servers of
Internet service providers in sub-Saharan Africa with services such as
USENET, popular WWW pages, etc.
There are a number of other interesting applications of datacasting
in sub-Saharan Africa based on the strong points of datacasting:
- wireless point-to-area distribution of data,
- simultaneous reception of data,
- use of existing broadcast media (e.g. television, radio and satellite).
**************************************

Biographies of Marcel Kooiman and Walter van Opzeeland

The authors, Msc. Marcel Kooiman and Msc. Walter van Opzeeland,
studied the MSc. course in Industrial Engineering with the specialization
in information management at the University of Twente in Enschede, the
Netherlands. The datacasting feasibility study that was performed in
cooperation with the TOOLnet Foundation in Amsterdam and the
Telecommunications Foundation of Africa (TFA) in Nairobi Kenya, was their
graduation project. In March 1997, they graduated from the university as
majoring on the datacasting research project.
**************************************

Address

Marcel Kooiman and Walter van Opzeeland
University of Twente
Enschede, The Netherlands
m.e.kooiman@student.utwente.nl
w.vanopzeeland@student.utwente.nl
OR;
Telecommunications Foundation of Africa
Ngong Road ( Nairobi)
P.O. Box 59948 NAIROBI Kenya
tel +254 2 567 381 & 570 690
fax +254 2 567 383
email: tfa@arcc.or.ke
**********************************************************************
* Takeshi Utsumi, Ph.D. *
* Laureate of Lord Perry Award for Excellence in Distance Education *
* Founder of CAADE *
* (Consortium for Affordable and Accessible Distance Education) *
* President, Global University in the U.S.A. (GU/USA) *
* A Divisional Activity of GLOSAS/USA *
* (GLObal Systems Analysis and Simulation Association in the U.S.A.) *
* 43-23 Colden Street, Flushing, NY 11355-3998, U.S.A. *
* Tel: 718-939-0928; Fax: 718-939-0656 (day time only--prefer email) *
* INTERNET: utsumi@columbia.edu; Tax Exempt ID: 11-2999676 *
* FTP://champlaincollege.qc.ca (IP 198.168.102.231) *
* http://www.wiu.edu/users/milibo/wiu/resource/glosas/cont.htm *
* http://www.friends- *
* partners.org/oldfriends/education/globaluniv/synopsis.html *
*********************************************************************

--Boundary_(ID_3BW5NRtoS2cSqQXeCWd4Ow)

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Date: Fri, 01 Aug 1997 12:21:42 -0600 (MDT)
From: "KAPLAN, JULES" <kaplan@spot.Colorado.EDU>
Subject: bio and paper outline
In-reply-to: <Pine.GSO.3.95.970713221734.19413A-100000@solar.cini.utk.edu>
To: Tak Utsumi <utsumi@www.friends-partners.org>
Cc: Utsumi Takeshi <utsumi@columbia.edu>,
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Dear Takeshi,

Here is a slightly revised bio - I changed the last part and a summary of
the paper that I will write for you. I will begin ernest work on the paper
in the next few days, is there a deadline for completion?

Thanks,

Jay Kaplan

********************************************
(1) Jay:

Attached is the next-to-final of your bio which Tina kindly
edited.

Pls send me the outline of your paper at your earliest
convenience.

Best, Tak
**************************************

Biography of Jules Kaplan

Dr. Jules Kaplan currently teaches for the Department of Economics
at the University of Colorado in Boulder. He is also the Director of the
Internship Program for the Economics Department and teaches courses for
the Honors program. Dr. Kaplan is active in research. His interests
include public choice and the effectiveness of voter enacted tax
expenditure limitations and investigation of the role of technology in
increasing economic growth rates and worker productivity.
Dr. Kaplan has devoted a great deal of time to developing learning
materials on the World Wide Web. He has completed a Web-based course in
the Principles of Macroeconomics that is offered for University of
Colorado credit. Currently, students are enrolled in the course from
various locations throughout the world. The course is self-contained and
requires no supplementary textbooks.
Mr. Kaplan is very active in synchronous Internet teaching. He has
taught semester-paced courses in macroeconomic and microeconomic principles
and is developing additional online courses in Money and Banking and
International Economics, He will teach these two additional courses through
the Internet during the Fall semester of 1997.

Paper Outline

This paper will focus on the application of Internet teaching, with an
emphasis on synchronous, semester-paced courses. In addition, the paper
will look at some basic economic issues relating to Internet education.

When comparing the teaching experience in the traditional "sage on the stage"
lecture to a course on the Internet, there are many more similarities than
striking differences. When you get past the obvious lack of group and personal
contact when teaching on the Internet, a synchronous, semester-paced online
course takes on a similar rhythm to an live, classroom course. This paper
will emphasize the many similar aspects between the two media, but also
explore the requirements necessitated by the differences present.

Over time, Internet teaching will become fully integrated into the learning
experience, especially as today's young students progress through their
education. Today's students in the early part of their education,
especially those exposed to computers in their schools and homes,
will expect that the Internet be part of their learning experience
as they reach high school and college. This paper will look at some
of the potential benefits and address the arguments made by critics
of the computerized classroom.

Teacher development will also be discussed. It is likely that the best
Internet teachers will be those with significant prior live classroom
experience. Classroom teaching is essential for the teacher to break away
from the textbook presentation and to understand the finite limits of how
much material can be effectively covered in a class period, through a week,
and especially during the entire class. Live teaching is required for the
instructor to develop methods of presenting the class materials in an
understandable method and to learn where students stumble on the course
materials. With classroom experience, the instructor can design Internet
classes that actually teaches students meaningful knowledge that often goes
beyond the narrow definition of the course materials, rather that racing
through sequential chapters in a selected textbook.

This paper will also address the economic issues of opportunity cost for
the student. Adults face several critical choices in their lives. Some of
these choices include finding time to spend with their families and friends,
continuing their education to maintain and improve their skills and knowledge,
and the requirement to work. Adult learners face a high opportunity cost in
regards to education, since time spent in the classroom often comes at the
expense of scarce leisure time. This paper will address the issue of the
opportunity cost of education and the availability of Internet education.

Another important economic issue deals with economies of scale. Over the
past several decades, rapid technological advances have allowed many industries
to produce with increasing returns to scale. For example, prices of goods
and services produced in the computer and telecommunications industries
have fallen significantly over time (especially when quality is factored in).
An increasing returns to scale industry is one characterized by falling prices
of the good or service over time. In contrast, due to its labor intensive
nature, education is a decreasing returns to scale industry where costs
and prices have risen steadily over time. The Internet allows the educational
industry to economize on scarce resources and perhaps shift to an increasing
returns to scale industry. Lower prices for education will stimulate demand
and lead to a greater distribution of the benefits of education throughout
society.

--Boundary_(ID_E16PKZpcVe8Qz9Wj1JBXGA)
Content-id: <Pine.GSO.3.96.970801122142.1986B@spot.Colorado.EDU>
Content-type: TEXT/PLAIN; name=tak; charset=US-ASCII
Content-description:
Content-disposition: ATTACHMENT; FILENAME=tak

>From utsumi@www.friends-partners.org Wed Jul 30 21:17:49 1997
Date: Sun, 13 Jul 1997 22:19:20 -0400 (EDT)
From: Tak Utsumi <utsumi@www.friends-partners.org>
To: Kaplan Jay <kaplan@spot.Colorado.EDU>
Cc: Utsumi Takeshi <utsumi@columbia.edu>,
Tina Greenwood <greenwood_t@fortlewis.edu>
Subject: Next-to-final of your bio

<<July 13, 1997>>

Prof. Jules G. Kaplan
Director of the Internship Program
Instructor Dept. of Economics
University of Colorado, Campus 256
Boulder, CO 80309-0256
303-492-7869
Fax: 303-492-7960
Fax: 303-417-0592
kaplan@spot.Colorado.EDU

Ms. Tina Evans Greenwood
Managing Editor, GLOSAS News and
Library Instruction Coordinator
Fort Lewis College
612 East 32nd Street
Durango, Colorado 81301-81301
970-259-1345
970-247-7684
Fax: 970-247-7149
greenwood_t@fortlewis.edu
mfteg@uxa.ecn.bgu.edu

(1) Jay:

Attached is the next-to-final of your bio which Tina kindly
edited.

Pls send me the outline of your paper at your earliest
convenience.

Best, Tak
**************************************

Biography of Jules Kaplan

Dr. Jules Kaplan currently teaches for the Department of Economics
at the University of Colorado in Boulder. He is also the Director of the
Internship Program for the Economics Department and teaches courses for
the Honors program. Dr. Kaplan is active in research. His interests
include public choice and the effectiveness of voter enacted tax
expenditure limitations and investigation of the role of technology in
increasing economic growth rates and worker productivity.
Dr. Kaplan has devoted a great deal of time to developing learning
materials on the World Wide Web. He has completed a Web-based course in
the Principles of Macroeconomics that is offered for University of
Colorado credit. Currently, students are enrolled in the course from
various locations throughout the world. The course is self-contained and
requires no supplementary textbooks.
Mr. Kaplan is very active in synchronous Internet teaching. He has
taught semester-paced courses in macroeconomic and microeconomic principles
and is developing additional online courses in Money and Banking and
International Economics, He will teach these two additional courses through
the Internet during the Fall semester of 1997.

Paper Outline

This paper will focus on the application of Internet teaching, with an
emphasis on synchronous, semester-paced courses. In addition, the paper
will look at some basic economic issues relating to Internet education.

When comparing the teaching experience in the traditional "sage on the stage"
lecture to a course on the Internet, there are many more similarities than
striking differences. When you get past the obvious lack of group and personal
contact when teaching on the Internet, a synchronous, semester-paced online
course takes on a similar rhythm to an live, classroom course. This paper
will emphasize the many similar aspects between the two media, but also
explore the requirements necessitated by the differences present.

Over time, Internet teaching will become fully integrated into the learning
experience, especially as today's young students progress through their
education. Today's students in the early part of their education,
especially those exposed to computers in their schools and homes,
will expect that the Internet be part of their learning experience
as they reach high school and college. This paper will look at some
of the potential benefits and address the arguments made by critics
of the computerized classroom.

Teacher development will also be discussed. It is likely that the best
Internet teachers will be those with significant prior live classroom
experience. Classroom teaching is essential for the teacher to break away
from the textbook presentation and to understand the finite limits of how
much material can be effectively covered in a class period, through a week,
and especially during the entire class. Live teaching is required for the
instructor to develop methods of presenting the class materials in an
understandable method and to learn where students stumble on the course
materials. With classroom experience, the instructor can design Internet
classes that actually teaches students meaningful knowledge that often goes
beyond the narrow definition of the course materials, rather that racing
through sequential chapters in a selected textbook.

This paper will also address the economic issues of opportunity cost for
the student. Adults face several critical choices in their lives. Some of
these choices include finding time to spend with their families and friends,
continuing their education to maintain and improve their skills and knowledge,
and the requirement to work. Adult learners face a high opportunity cost in
regards to education, since time spent in the classroom often comes at the
expense of scarce leisure time. This paper will address the issue of the
opportunity cost of education and the availability of Internet education.

Another important economic issue deals with economies of scale. Over the
past several decades, rapid technological advances have allowed many industries
to produce with increasing returns to scale. For example, prices of goods
and services produced in the computer and telecommunications industries
have fallen significantly over time (especially when quality is factored in).
An increasing returns to scale industry is one characterized by falling prices
of the good or service over time. In contrast, due to its labor intensive
nature, education is a decreasing returns to scale industry where costs
and prices have risen steadily over time. The Internet allows the educational
industry to economize on scarce resources and perhaps shift to an increasing
returns to scale industry. Lower prices for education will stimulate demand
and lead to a greater distribution of the benefits of education throughout
society.

--Boundary_(ID_E16PKZpcVe8Qz9Wj1JBXGA)--

--Boundary_(ID_3BW5NRtoS2cSqQXeCWd4Ow)

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Date: Sat, 02 Aug 1997 07:55:27 +0100
From: Joseph Pelton <Joseph_Pelton@isu.isunet.edu>
Subject: Re: Your excellent full pape
To: Joe Pelton <pelton@isu.isunet.edu>, Tak Utsumi <utsumi@solar.cini.utk.edu>
Cc: Tina Greenwood <greenwood_t@FORTLEWIS.EDU>,
Utsumi Takeshi <utsumi@columbia.edu>
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RE>Your excellent full paper
2/08/97
To: Tak Utsumi
FROM: Joe Pelton
Please excuse my lack of a prompt reply. I have been on travel
between our two programs with one here in Strasbourg and the
other in Houston, Texas. I will be returning in the next few
days to Boulder, Colorado to take up my duties there. The
previous address, telephone number and e-mails should still be
valid.

I am currently very over committed. I am finishing a book for
the International Engineering Consortium on satellite
communications, finishing another book called Cyberspace
Chronicles and chairing a study for NASA and the NSF that will
turn into a book length report by early next year. I think your
suggestions for the attachments are highly relevant, but I do
not have the time over the next few months because I am behind
my deadlines already. Particularly with my return to Colorado
with a heavy teaching load and some consulting responsibilities
I am relunctantly forced to say that I am not in a position to
take on any new work. I hope you can understand and that you
can still use the material I was able to complete. Please
accept my very best wishes for the completion of your ambitious
project. Keep up your very fine work. Best regards. Joe Pelton

--------------------------------------
Date: 16/07/97 16:43
To: Joseph Pelton
From: Tak Utsumi
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Date: Wed, 16 Jul 1997 11:29:42 -0400 (EDT)
From: Tak Utsumi <utsumi@solar.cini.utk.edu>
To: Joe Pelton <pelton@isu.isunet.edu>
cc: Utsumi Takeshi <utsumi@columbia.edu>,
Tina Greenwood <greenwood_t@fortlewis.edu>
Subject: Your excellent full paper
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<<July 16, 1997>>

Dr. Joseph N. Pelton
Director, Interdisciplinary Telecommunications Program
Engineering Center, OT 2-41
Campus Box 530
University of Colorado
Boulder, Colorado 80309-0530
303-492-8916
Fax: 303-492-1112
Pelton_J@cubldr.colorado.edu
Pelton@Boulder.Colorado.edu

Ms. Tina Evans Greenwood
Managing Editor, GLOSAS News and
Library Instruction Coordinator
Fort Lewis College
612 East 32nd Street
Durango, Colorado 81301-81301
970-259-1345
970-247-7684
Fax: 970-247-7149
greenwood_t@fortlewis.edu
mfteg@uxa.ecn.bgu.edu

(1) Joe:

Many thanks for your msg with an excellent, succinct full
paper for
our planned book from Idea-Group Publishing -- ATTACHMENT
I.

Referring to ATTACHMENT II and III, I wonder if you can
elaborate/add further (in a few paragraphs) on the use of
digital
satellite for broad-band international Internet --
followings are
some hints;

(a) I read in SSPI's newsletter that INTELSAT developed
interactive satellite channel.

(b) You may refer to the purpose and vision of Category
I (for the
use of narrow-band digital satellite channel) of
Project
ACCESS.

(c) You may also compare pro and con of geosynchronous
satellite
and low earth orbiting satellite for international
Internet.

(d) You may refer/comment on the initial trial step for
having
such a broad-band international Internet by NSF --
see
<http://www.cise.nsf.gov/ncri/nsf97-106.html>

(e) Such broad-band international satellite channel
requires huge
operating cost. Therefore, in order to finance
them, there
may need to have a similar funds as "Universal
Funds" ($4.65
billion) which the U.S. FCC recently announced --
see

<http://www.fcc.gov/ccb/universal_service/fcc97157/>.

Pls confirm your address in Boulder above.

Looking forward to receiving your response to the above.

(2) Tina:

Pls check this from your editorial viewpoint.

Thanks in advance.

Best, Tak
**************************************
ATTACHMENT I

Date: 8 Jul 1997 14:27:10 +0100
From: "Joseph Pelton" <Joseph_Pelton@isu.isunet.edu>
Subject: Re: Respectfully requesting
To: "Tak Utsumi" <utsumi@www.friends-partners.org>

RE>Respectfully requesting paper con
8/07/97
TO: Tak Utsumi
FROM: Joe Pelton
Here is my brief article for your book project. I will be
moving back to the U.S. on the 3rd of August and you can reach
me at my old telephone, fax and e-mail address after that time.
Best regards Joe Pelton
======================================

Trends in Satellite Tele-education

Dr. Joseph N. Pelton
Dean, International Space University
Srasbourg, France

The Start of Satellite Tele-education

The launch of the first artificial satellite, Sputnik 1,
occurred in
October 1957. This was quickly followed by the launch of a
series of
telecommunications satellites such as Score, Courier IB, Echo,
Relay,
Telstar, and Syncom. These and other experimental satellites
demonstrated
that voice, data and television could be sent reliably between
ground
antenna systems. These experiments led to the deployment of
three
operational systems in 1965 namely the Russian Molniya domestic
satellite
system, the U.S. Initial Defense Satellite Communications
System, and the
INTELSAT global satellite system's Early Bird. From the very
start of
satellite communications services television transmissions were
featured.
These included exchanges between heads of state, the Lemans
automobile
race, and important social services such as surgeons in Geneva,
Switzerland observing open heart surgery in Houston, Texas by
Dr. Debekey.

In the ensuing years through the late 1960s and the 1970s
efforts to
devise satellite technology that could bring cost effective
satellite
tele-education services to rural and remote areas at
cost-effective rates
continued. These efforts included the Applications Technology
Satellite
series 1 through 6 that showed many different new satellite
applications
including satellite tele-education. The ATS-6 with a very large
unfurlable antenna demonstrated rural satellite video education
services
in the Appalachia region of the U.S. as well as in Brazil and
India. The
Communications Technology Satellite (with the Hermes satellite
designed
and built in Canada and with NASA providing the launch) also
showed how
very high powered satellites could broadcast educational video
to rural
areas using only very small aperture terminals.

In the 1980s satellite based tele-education began to
evolve on a
global scale. The Indian INSAT system, building on the positive
SITE
experiments conducted with the ATS-6 was deployed starting with
the INSAT
1B in 1983. Now with the INSAT 2 series, built the Indian Space
Organization, deployed there are four satellites providing
television
based education to tens of thousands of villages. In Indonesia
the Palapa
satellite system also began offering television education in the
1980s as
well. International programming as well as local programming
developed by
Television Radio Indonesia (TVRI) provided service to sites on
Indonesia
most heavily populated islands.

In areas such as the Caribbean and the South Pacific
operating
networks based on satellite operations have been in operation
for over 20
years through such networks as UDIWITE (University of the West
Indies)
Peacesat (University of the South Pacific).

Project Share

One of the key stimulants to the spread of satellite
communications
came from the INTELSAT sponsored Satellites for Health and Rural
Education
(SHARE) project that took place from 1985 to 1987. Free
satellite
capacity was made available to test rural and remote educational
and tele-
health projects all over the world. Most dramatically, China,
under the
auspices of INTELSAT's Project Share began its national
education
television program in this manner. It began with only a few
dozen
stations and a few thousand students. Today this network has
over 90,000
antennas in operation in all parts of China and reaches over 3
million
students.

In East Africa and in the Caribbean tele-medicine tests
were carried
out using only a single satellite voice circuit to connect the
Memorial
Hospital of Newfoundland to remote hospital and clinics. The
same circuit
was used for a seven hour shift to link Canada with Kenya and
Uganda and
then for another seven hour shift to link Canada with Caribbean
nations.

Current and Future Trends

In Canada and the United States over 100 different
satellite tele-
education systems are now in operation. These include state and
province
owned and operated networks, commercial networks that range from
primary
schooling to graduate level programming. Some projects such as
the Mind-
Extension University of the Jones Intercable reaches into over
20 million
homes via cable television. Others such as the National
Technological
University (NTU) combines college course produced by over 40
different
universities and also provides short courses and corporate
training.
European use of satellite tele-education has been less extensive
than in
North America
simply because extensive terrestrial telecommunications networks
are
widely available and cover population centers and educational
institutions
quite well.

Project Learn

One of the latest initiatives to seek to stimulate new
directions
and experiments in satellite tele-education is called Project
LEARN. This
stands for Local Education and Resource Network and its
objective is to
stimulate a wide range of tele-education projects in diverse
subjects, in
a number of countries and with alternative technical and
operations
approaches. It is anticipated that after the various trials,
tests and
demonstrations, and projects are completed that an assessment
team will
evaluate the successes, shortcoming, and key lessons learned and
prepare a
international report of these findings. To date projects in
India, China,
Russia, Korea, and the U.S. have been initially identified for
detailed
planning. It is intended that the final report and evaluation
will be
published and circulated by the International Telecommunication
Union as
well as presented in electronic form as an international web
site.

Specific objectives are to test and evaluate:

a. broad band versus narrow band tele-education systems
b. effectiveness of tele-education at various age levels
c. ability to combine rural communications systems with
tele-education
systems
d. effectiveness of combined tele-education and tele-medicine
projects
e. effectiveness of satellite, terrestrial and hybrid systems
in
meeting tele-education objectives.
f. identify typical gaps or problems in tele-education
projects such as
in the areas of training of educators and technicians,
program
development, terminal equipment, high cost of establishing
or
maintaining ground systems, technical standards, etc.
g. impact of tele-education systems on quality of life and
general
improvements to society (these areas are admittedly
extremely
difficult to measure).

These projects are planned for 1998 and 1999 and the final
report
for Project LEARN is anticipated in the year 2000.

There are today a growing number of test, demonstrations,
and even
commercial projects in tele-education. It is hoped that Project
LEARN and
perhaps other parallel global test and evaluation programs can
share more
broadly and effectively the results of these tele-education
tests.

Conclusions

Today there are some 50 satellite carriers who have
deployed some
200 GHz of satellite capacity in orbit, representing over 200
satellites.
The next decade may well see the number of satellite carriers
growing to
100 to 150 carriers and the total amount of satellite capacity
(as now
proposed) could grow to 2000 GHz. This explosion of satellite
capacity in
low, medium and geosynchronous satellite orbit should make a
tremendous
amount of new space segment capacity that could be used for
tele-education
and tele-medicine purposes. Further this sudden expansion of
capacity
should also reduce the capital and operating costs for
tele-education
systems. Systematic planning efforts, like Project LEARN are
needed now
to exploit fully the new capacity that will be increasingly
available in
the next few years.
**************************************#012#
ATTACHMENT II

To: Joseph Pelton
Date: Fri, 17 Jan 1997 16:04:01 -0500 (EST)
From: Tak Utsumi <utsumi@www.friends-partners.org>
To: Joe Pelton <pelton@isu.isunet.edu>
Cc: Utsumi Takeshi <utsumi@columbia.edu>
Subject: Respectfully requesting paper contribution

=================================================
OMITTED HERE BY T. UTSUMI <<July 16, 1997>
=================================================

(2) I would like to respectfully inquire if you can contribute
a paper
to our proposed book "Electronic Global University System
and
Services" which will be published from Idea-Group
Publishing in
Harrisburg, PA this year.

If affirmative, I wish to have a paper from your vast
knowledge and
experience on the overview of satellite usage for global
education -
- particularly on the current/future use of broad-band
VSAT (T1 at
1.5 Mbps or up) for Global Information Infrastructure(GII)
-- our
book is a part of a series on GII, and is to promote the
usage of
Internet.

Though many developing countries have now been
connected with
TCP/IP oriented Internet, most of them are still
with only 128
or 256 Kbps, at the best, for their connection with
the U.S.

Looking into the near future of Year 2000, 2005 and
2010 with
the rapid advancement of WWW via Internet, and also
the
requirement of high-resolution image transfer for
telemedicine, such broad-band VSAT will be a vital
necessity
for both global electronic distance education and
global-
healthcare and -telemedicine.

We are now start collaborating with tele-healthcare
and -
medicine group (Koop Foundation, World Health
Organization,
Pan American Health Organization, Norwalk
Hospital/Yale
University School of Medicine, etc.) to cost share
expensive
broad-band VSAT earth station and satellite segment.

One of ideas is to have mtgs on the establishment of
an
international coalition for GII, firstly in
Philadelphia this
spring with U.S. government officials (particularly
from the
US Information Agency, US Agency for International
Development, etc.) and secondly at UNESCO/Paris this
fall
(tentative), to discuss massive funding (in the
magnitude of
$5 billion) from governments of Japan, north America
and
Europe for effective use of the broad-band VSAT.

I wish you can attend one of those mtgs -- I will
inform you
when the mtgs are firmed up.

(3) This book publishing project will have three phases;

(a) hard copy book to which each contributor will
present 2 to 5
page summary,

(b) CD-ROM (or DVD) to be accompanied with the book, to
which each
contributor will present 10 to 20 pages with
multimedia
materials,

(c) virtual book with computer-mediated conferencing
system via
web and Internet -- the CD-ROM (or DVD) materials
will be
converted to this.

Should you accept this invitation, pls send me a half page
outline
of your paper and a half page bio at your earliest
convenience.

<<Joe:
I have received them. Thanks.>>

=================================================
OMITTED THE REST BY T. UTSUMI <<July 16, 1997>
=================================================
**************************************
ATTACHMENT III

Excerpt from
ITU Secretary-General's Message
for
TELECOM "Inter@ctive 97" Conference
8-14, September
Geneva, Switzerland

Interactive seems to me to be the most unifying and
appropriate
characteristic of the new infocommunication applications and
services.
This is reflected by Martin Bangemann, who currently heads
policy
development in the fields of telecommunications and the
information
society at the European Union: "There will not be a 'single and
unique'
information highway," he says, "but 'system' of information
highways,
formed in particular by the cable TV networks, the wireless
terrestrial
networks, the different kinds of satellite networks, etc.
Internet is
part of this global picture of interlinked networks, but it
presents some
special characteristics. With its huge offer of on-line,
interactive
services of an incredible variety, it has succeeded in
attracting a
considerable community of users behind the technology."
According to
Bangemann, the key of Internet success is the offer of
interactive
applications.
On entering a new world, we would prefer to be players
rather than
spectators, and interactivity must be one of the most
appropriate tools
for being both a player and keeping control.
Furthermore, multimedia, considered as new form of
information
delivery (not in the transmission sense of the term but in its
communication sense), can be seen as a new interface between the
content
provider and the information consumer, and the key of success
for this
interface, as symbolized by the World Wide Web, is again:
interactivity.
**********************************************************************
* Takeshi Utsumi, Ph.D.
*
* Laureate of Lord Perry Award for Excellence in Distance
Education *
* Founder of CAADE
*
* (Consortium for Affordable and Accessible Distance Education)
*
* President, Global University in the U.S.A. (GU/USA)
*
* A Divisional Activity of GLOSAS/USA
*
* (GLObal Systems Analysis and Simulation Association in the
U.S.A.) *
* 43-23 Colden Street, Flushing, NY 11355-3998, U.S.A.
*
* Tel: 718-939-0928; Fax: 718-939-0656 (day time only--prefer
email) *
* INTERNET: utsumi@columbia.edu; Tax Exempt ID: 11-2999676
*
* FTP://champlaincollege.qc.ca (IP 198.168.102.231)
*
* http://www.wiu.edu/users/milibo/wiu/resource/glosas/cont.htm
*
* http://www.friends-
*
*
partners.org/oldfriends/education/globaluniv/synopsis.html *
**********************************************************************

--Boundary_(ID_3BW5NRtoS2cSqQXeCWd4Ow)

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Subject: Next-to-final outline of paper by Kaplan
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<<August 3, 1997>>

Prof. Jules G. Kaplan
Director of the Internship Program
Instructor Dept. of Economics
University of Colorado, Campus 256
Boulder, CO 80309-0256
303-492-7869
Fax: 303-492-7960
Fax: 303-417-0592
kaplan@spot.Colorado.EDU

Ms. Tina Evans Greenwood
Managing Editor, GLOSAS News and
Library Instruction Coordinator
Fort Lewis College
612 East 32nd Street
Durango, Colorado 81301-81301
970-259-1345
970-247-7684
Fax: 970-247-7149
greenwood_t@fortlewis.edu
mfteg@uxa.ecn.bgu.edu

(1) Jay:

Thanks for your excellent outline.

My comments/replies are in << >>. Pls send back your reply to this ASAP.

BTW, I could not decipher your compressed version with
the UUDECODE program of Columbia University -- it said
"No Begin Line."

Pls start working on your full paper (which will also be put
into the web site), and may be included in our hard copy book
after consulting with our publisher.

Pls aim the end of August for the full paper.

Thank you very much for your cooperation.

Best, Tak
**************************************

Paper Outline

<<Jay:
Pls add the title of your paper.>>

This paper will focus on the application of Internet teaching, with
an emphasis on synchronous, semester-paced courses. In addition,
the paper will look at some basic economic issues relating to
Internet education.

When comparing the teaching experience in the traditional "sage on
the stage" lecture to a course on the Internet, there are many more
similarities than striking differences. When you get past the
obvious lack of group and personal contact when teaching on the
Internet, a synchronous, semester-paced online course takes on a
similar rhythm to an live, classroom course. This paper will
emphasize the many similar aspects between the two media, but also
explore the requirements necessitated by the differences present.

Over time, Internet teaching will become fully integrated into the
learning experience, especially as today's young students progress
through their education. Today's students in the early part of
their education, especially those exposed to computers in their
schools and homes, will expect that the Internet be part of their
learning experience as they reach high school and college. This
paper will look at some of the potential benefits and address the
arguments made by critics of the computerized classroom.

Teacher development will also be discussed. It is likely that the
best Internet teachers will be those with significant prior live
classroom experience. Classroom teaching is essential for the
teacher to break away from the textbook presentation and to
understand the finite limits of how much material can be effectively
covered in a class period, through a week, and especially during the
entire class. Live teaching is required for the instructor to
develop methods of presenting the class materials in an
understandable method and to learn where students stumble on the
course materials. With classroom experience, the instructor can
design Internet classes that actually teaches students meaningful
knowledge that often goes beyond the narrow definition of the course
materials, rather that racing through sequential chapters in a
selected textbook.

This paper will also address the economic issues of opportunity cost
for the student. Adults face several critical choices in their
lives. Some of these choices include finding time to spend with
their families and friends, continuing their education to maintain
and improve their skills and knowledge, and the requirement to work.
Adult learners face a high opportunity cost in regards to education,
since time spent in the classroom often comes at the expense of
scarce leisure time. This paper will address the issue of the
opportunity cost of education and the availability of Internet
education.

Another important economic issue deals with economies of scale.
Over the past several decades, rapid technological advances have
allowed many industries to produce with increasing returns to scale.
For example, prices of goods and produced in the computer and
telecommunications industries have fallen significantly over time
(especially when quality is factored in). An increasing returns to
scale industry is one characterized by falling prices of the good or
service over time. In contrast, due to its labor intensive
nature, education is a decreasing returns to scale industry where
costs and prices have risen steadily over time. The Internet allows
the educational industry to economize on scarce resources and
perhaps shift to an increasing returns to scale industry. Lower
prices for education will stimulate demand and lead to a greater
distribution of the benefits of education throughout society.
**************************************

Biography of Jules Kaplan

Dr. Jules Kaplan currently teaches for the Department of
Economics at the University of Colorado in Boulder. He is also the
Director of the Internship Program for the Economics Department and
teaches courses for the Honors program. Dr. Kaplan is active in
research. His interests include public choice and the effectiveness
of voter enacted tax expenditure limitations and investigation of
the role of technology in increasing economic growth rates and
worker productivity.
Dr. Kaplan has devoted a great deal of time to developing
learning materials on the World Wide Web. He has completed a Web-based course
in the Principles of Macroeconomics that is offered for
University of Colorado credit. Currently, students are enrolled in
the course from various locations throughout the world. The course
is self-contained and requires no supplementary textbooks.
Dr. Kaplan is very active in synchronous Internet teaching.
He has taught semester-paced courses in macroeconomic and
microeconomic principles and is developing additional online courses
in Money and Banking and International Economics. He will teach
these two additional courses through the Internet during the Fall
semester of 1997.
**************************************

Address

Prof. Jules G. Kaplan
Director of the Internship Program
Instructor Dept. of Economics
University of Colorado, Campus 256
Boulder, CO 80309-0256
303-492-7869
Fax: 303-492-7960
Fax: 303-417-0592
kaplan@spot.Colorado.EDU

<<Jay:
If you have your own web site, pls add at the end of your
address.>>
**********************************************************************
* Takeshi Utsumi, Ph.D. *
* Laureate of Lord Perry Award for Excellence in Distance Education *
* Founder of CAADE *
* (Consortium for Affordable and Accessible Distance Education) *
* President, Global University in the U.S.A. (GU/USA) *
* A Divisional Activity of GLOSAS/USA *
* (GLObal Systems Analysis and Simulation Association in the U.S.A.) *
* 43-23 Colden Street, Flushing, NY 11355-3998, U.S.A. *
* Tel: 718-939-0928; Fax: 718-939-0656 (day time only--prefer email) *
* INTERNET: utsumi@columbia.edu; Tax Exempt ID: 11-2999676 *
* FTP://champlaincollege.qc.ca (IP 198.168.102.231) *
* http://www.wiu.edu/users/milibo/wiu/resource/glosas/cont.htm *
* http://www.friends-partners.org/oldfriends/education/globaluniv/synopsis.html *
**********************************************************************

Originally posted at the Website: http://library.fortlewis.edu/~instruct/glosas/GN/ by Tina Evans Greenwood, Library Instruction Coordinator, Fort Lewis College, Durango, Colorado 81301, e-mail: greenwood_t@fortlewis.edu, and last updated May 7, 1999. By her permission the whole Website has been archived here at the University of Tennessee server directory of GLOSAS Chair Dr. Takeshi Utsumi from August 9, 2000 by Steve McCarty in Japan.