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From: Tak Utsumi <>
Subject: Internet telephony and how Roger Boston accomplished
To: Multiple recipients of list <>
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<<October 18, 1997>>

John W. Hibbs
PHONE: OFFICE: 619 270 2352
HOME TEL/FAX 619 273 4521
OFFICE FAX: 619 270 2667
Fax On Demand: LEARN DAY SUMMARY FOUR PAGES 1 619 718 3456

Albert J. Lepine
Director L.E.A.R.N. Day Academic Consultant
Headquarters for GLOBAL LEARN DAY and The Franklin Knowledge Corps
TEL: 619 270 2352
FAX: 619 270 2667
Learn more about L.E.A.R.N. Day Email Auto Responder:
4241 Jutland Avenue, Suite 2000, San Diego, CA 92117

Roger Lee Boston
Rockwell Chair Instructor and Consultant for Creativity
Houston Community College System Distance Education/Technology Center
Office of the President
4310 Dunlavy
P. O. Box 7849
Houston, TX 77270-7849
713-718-5224 (direct)
713-265-5343 (main)
FAX: 713 718-5301
SHAREVISION# 713 866 8219 and on 24hr/day
Or 713 866 8282
ISDN #: 713-610-3223/3224
8x8 #: 713-523-6905
Page Unit 713 765 9494 and in 24hr/day
50 stream CuSeeMe reflector at with a dedicated machine and T1
The AUDIOVISION unit however is still "Waiting for a call" at -- about GLH on 8/16/96. -- PowerPoint presentation. -- for web during LEARN DAY on

Dear Electronic colleagues:

(1) ATTACHMENT I is the following article;

Armstrong, L, N. Sandler and P. Elstrom, You re Coming Over Loud --
and Almost Clear, Business Week, October 27, 1997, Page 116 and 118.

I downloaded it from <>, which I mentioned in my
last distribution.

I am taking the liberty of distributing this to you, in case if you
haven t been able to read it.

(2) ATTACHMENT II is a msg from Roger Boston in response to John Hibbs
request/inquiry which was attached at the end of my last
distribution. This is an excellent, succinct description how he
accomplished superb technical achievement during our mini GLH on
10/12th (Sunday) on the occasion of the GLOBAL LEARN DAY event.

(3) John:

I forgot to say in my last distribution that your web design was

I would suggest that you critically analyze your event (organization,
programming, technicality, etc.) and put them into your report and
web. (If you need, I would be happy to send you copies of my report
of our previous GLHs for you reference.)

Best, Tak


Internet telephony is slowly improving in quality

With just a personal computer, an Internet connection, and
some software, the long-distance telephone world can be your
oyster--free. That's the promise of Internet telephony: Pay
for a local call to hook up to the Net, then chat with your
buddies and business partners in far-flung locales. There's
just one drawback: The Net wasn't designed for continuous
voice transmission, so those who use it have had to put up
with half-second delays more reminiscent of low-tech
walkie-talkies. ''Voice over the Internet,'' concedes David
House, chairman and CEO of Bay Networks Inc., a networking
leader, ''just hasn't worked very well.''

But the troubled lines may soon be clearing. In the past
couple of months, telecom giants have jumped into the nascent
market, bringing along wads of cash to pour into research and
development. In August, Deutsche Telekom paid $48 million for
a 21% stake in pioneer VocalTec Communications Ltd., an
Israel-based developer of Net telephony products. AT&T is
backing New Jersey startup ITXC Corp., which is developing
software for routing calls on the Net. Bell Atlantic, US
West, and Microsoft, meanwhile, are pumping money into
fledgling VDOnet Inc. And if WorldCom Inc. succeeds in its
$30 billion bid for MCI Communications Corp., it could become
the most aggressive of all in pushing Net telephony, given
the pair's domination of the Internet backbone.

WAITING FOR PROFITS. That has sent the stocks of these
pioneers skyward. The biggest winner may be VocalTec, which
posted a $7.2 million loss on sales of $8.5 million in 1996,
yet it has watched its stock price nearly triple, to $29,
since July. NetSpeak, which makes Net telephony software
called WebPhone, last year lost $2.8 million on sales of just
$867,000--but its stock has doubled, to $20. ''The promise of
the market is pretty immense,'' says Eric Zimits,
communications analyst at Hambrecht & Quist. Few analysts
expect further significant stock gains, however, in part
because most of the Internet telephony pioneers won't even
hit profitability until next year.

This froth has been a while in coming. Net telephony first
hit the World Wide Web two years ago--only to be quickly
derided for poor voice quality and annoying delays. One big
problem has been that data networks break speech into little
packets so it's possible for some packets to arrive out of
order or too late to be included in a conversation. Another
issue is the lag time inherent in the Net. Speech packets
have to travel through a dozen or more ''routers''--which
direct them toward their destination--and each router takes a
split second to do its job.

But improvements are on the way. New software algorithms have
cut voice delays over the Internet to about 300 milliseconds
from as much as 600 earlier this year, says Jacob Davidson,
chairman of Israel-based Delta Three Inc., which has been
working on the problem. What's more, some companies are
figuring out how to avoid portions of the public Internet by
sending speech over private data networks--or intranets--that
hook up to the Net. In fact, Networks Telephony Corp. plans
to avoid the Internet entirely and use the private data
network of Infonet Services Corp., owned mostly by foreign
telephone companies, to offer international long-distance
service. ''We feel there's a tremendous market for our
services,'' says Bill Perren, Networks Telephony's president.

Another key breakthrough came last year with the arrival of a
''gateway'' server from VocalTec. A gateway connects data
networks--such as the Internet and corporate intranets--to
the public telephone networks. That allows Internet calls
from computer to phone or, with gateways on both ends, from
phone to phone.

DEEP DISCOUNT. But crystal-clear connections will come at a
price. Networks Telephony requires Internet service providers
to buy a router to direct calls to its private network at a
cost of $10,000 per site. A worldwide network could easily
cost millions of dollars. Still, Perren, the company's
president, estimates that he can undercut international
telephone rates by 40% or more.

Big savings are triggering a rash of small companies to offer
deep-discount long-distance service. Renegade phone
companies, such as RSL Communications Ltd., named after owner
and cosmetics heir Ronald S. Lauder, offer connections to
Japan, for example, at 30 cents per minute, compared with 40
cents charged by traditional long-distance companies. Earlier
this year, RSL bought 51% of Internet phone company Delta
Three for $10 million. Other early entries in the Internet
phone service business include IDT Corp. with its Net2Phone
service, Internet service provider Concentric Networks, and
Networks Telephony.

The giants aren't far behind. AT&T and MCI already are
running trials. Cable companies, too, plan to provide
Internet Protocol (IP) phone service as they build out their
broadband networks and start offering speedy, premium-priced
hookups to the Net. ''It's a huge deal for us,'' says Leo T.
Hindery, president of cable giant Tele-Communications Inc.,
which plans Internet service starting next year and phone
service in 1999. ''It eliminates local-access charges, it's
crystal clear, [and] it's an extension and seamless part of
the data service.''

Such expectations are swelling predictions for Net telephony
usage. Experts say consumers will jump at the new service,
but the onslaught of traffic will likely come from businesses
anxious to slash some of the $40 billion a year spent on
phone bills. Net phone service in the U.S. is expected to
rise from virtually nothing last year to $2 billion by 2004,
or about 4% of the total long-distance calls, according to
market researcher Forrester Research Inc. in Cambridge, Mass.
''Internet telephony is moving beyond the propeller-head
market,'' says Christopher Mines, a Forrester analyst.

What may also lure corporations is the promise of new ways
for merging voice with video and data communications over the
Web or a company's data network. ''In the long run, it's not
the cost savings that's going to boost the market,'' says
Elon Ganor, chairman and CEO of VocalTec. ''It's the
multimedia capabilities it gives us and the smart
call-management capabilities.''

Deere & Co. is a believer. The huge agricultural equipment
manufacturer thinks that the technology will improve
communication internally and with customers and suppliers.
For example, if a supplier ships a faulty part, a Deere
employee can show the supplier the incorrect part and explain
what needs to be changed--all over the Internet. ''We want to
collapse the time frame to make decisions and respond better
to customers,'' says Carlo Pensyl, Deere's Internet technical
project manager. Currently, Deere is in the process of
testing Microsoft's NetMeeting, and Pensyl plans to recommend
later this year that the technology be given to 23,000

The applications seem endless. Travel agents could use voice
and video over the Net to discuss travel plans; Web merchants
could use it to show merchandise and take orders. AT&T
already offers a hybrid version of the technology. With its
InterActive Answer service, customers at the Web sites of
AT&T clients, such as Alamo Rent-A-Car Inc. and Outrigger
Hotels Hawaii, can get an immediate call back on a standard
phone line. Eventually, the callbacks could come over the
Net. ''You're really starting to see the power of marrying
these applications,'' says Daniel Schulman, vice-president of
strategy and local marketing in AT&T's consumer division.
''It's the intersection of today's voice network and
tomorrow's data network.''

That's why many believe the future of Net telephony lies
bundled with video and data communications. ''It started off
around free calling, but now it's moving toward value-added
communications,'' says AT&T's Schulman. With that kind of
progress, Net telephony isn't just for geeks anymore.

By Larry Armstrong in Los Angeles, with Neal Sandler in
Jerusalem and Peter Elstrom in New York



TABLE: How Net Telephony Works

TABLE: Pioneering Net Telephony


for more information from Business Week's Archive*.

*There's no charge to see this list of stories. A small payment is
required only if you decide to view any specific article.

Updated Oct. 16, 1997 by bwwebmaster
Copyright 1997, by The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use

How Net Telephony Works

1. The telephone call starts from a PC that has special
software to convert the sounds into digital codes, which are
then passed on to...

2. The Internet Service Provider (ISP), which breaks the
digital messages up into packets--pieces of the message each
encoded with a destination address. The packets go to...

3. The Internet. Using packets allows multiple parties to
share digital lines so data transmission is much more
efficient than traditional phone conversations, each of which
requires a line. The packets go to...

4. The Internet Telephone Service Provider (ITSP), which
reassembles the packets as they arrive and converts them to
speech. It goes to...

5. The traditional public telephone network, which directs
the call to the right phone number. The ITSP charges for the
local call and a handling fee.

Updated Oct. 16, 1997 by bwwebmaster
Copyright 1997, by The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use

Pioneering Net Telephony


NETSPEAK WebPhone, Net telephony soft- Motorola, Creative
ware, gateways to translate calls Technology, ACT
from the Net to the phone network Networks

VDONET VDOPhone, Internet videoconfer- U S West,
encing and broadcasting Bell Atlantic,

VOCALTEC Internet Phone, Net telephony Deutsche Telekom
software, gateways

VOXWARE VoxPhone, Net telephony Intel, Netscape
software, tools for incorporating
voice capabilities into Web pages

Updated Oct. 16, 1997 by bwwebmaster
Copyright 1997, by The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use

Date: Sat, 18 Oct 1997 14:30:29 -0500 (CDT)
From: Roger Lee Boston <>
To: "" <>
Subject: Re: caade demonstration/P.R./ and Simple Writings?

I'll take a stab at that now in my response below --

On Sat, 18 Oct 1997, wrote:

> >> One: Roger: I think there were a whole lot of people, myself
included, who did not appreciate the CAADE experiment on Sunday. Can you
explain it in

John et al --

What happened last Sunday morning was a conversaion involving
several persons associated with CAADE but in different parts of the world,
which lasted just under one hour, AND which was shared with the listening
(and watching) world via Real Audio and the World Wide web as the "Global
L.E.A.R.N. Day" spotlight focused on our segment:

> It was opened and closed by Dr. Tak Utsumi, who
introduced the CAADE consortium and shared his decades-old
dream of world peace and global electronic distance education.
Tak had a few slides to accompany his talk, and these were
"clicked" by the listeners throughout the world to advance
from one slide to the next as he spoke. Those slides were seen
in the right frame of participants' web browsers while Dr.
Utsumi's LIVE IMAGE was in the left frame of their browsers.

Important to emphasize that we were posting his
live image to the web as he spoke.

> He then "passed the microphone from one speaker to the next"
and each in turn addressed the world similarly, but did not use
slides to accompany their talk. Speakers included Peter Knight
in Washington DC, and Claudio (OBJECTIVO) from Brazil, and me
from my office here in Houston.
> Important to restate: The video image of each speaker was
captured LIVE as it happened and from the originating location
and passed transparently through to participants' web browsers!

Our "Conversation" was actually happening as a live multinational
videoconference accomplished with the CuSeeMe videoconferencing
softare and my own video reflector here in Houston -- we had
10-15 frames/sec motion video and two way sound.

During the one
hour the Global Learn Day spotlight was focused on us we were able
to share some sense of that video conference by diverting it
to the web browsers of participants throughout the listening

And here is how we did it:

1. Our conference was actually a VIDEOCONFERENCE in
CuSeeMe which I monitored on my laptop as a participant.

2. Using a $200 scan converter
I took the VGA output from that laptop as Video INPUT to
a second laptop, which was able to take "Snapshot"
still-images of the videoconference and post those to the
web in such a way that new pictures appeared every
few seconds (world wide, and without user intevention)
so that participants could actually SEE who was talking.

3. My "Snapshot" program had the facility to "Pan and zoom"
so I was able to ZOOM the images and pan around to isolate
the face of the person actually speaking at the time
and present their expanded image to the world in track
with their voice. Speakers transmitted their video
to Houston using CuSeeMe videoconferencing and I made their
images appear in the web browsers around the world.

This service was also performed for the participants in
Wellington New Zealand, and from Hawaii.


Dr. Utsumi feels, and I do also, that this approach
makes possible an effective GLOBAL video address to
countless particpants, and from MULTIPLE presenters
who may be in different parts of the world -- each
speaker being seen in close-up, slowly updating
images in the web browsers of the far away participants
and requiring no intervention on their part.

It was
"new ground" for us in the arena of global tele-presentation
and we were wanting that point to get across as well as
the verbal content of our CAADE presentation.
* Takeshi Utsumi, Ph.D. *
* Laureate of Lord Perry Award for Excellence in Distance Education *
* Founder of CAADE *
* (Consortium for Affordable and Accessible Distance Education) *
* President, Global University in the U.S.A. (GU/USA) *
* A Divisional Activity of GLOSAS/USA *
* (GLObal Systems Analysis and Simulation Association in the U.S.A.) *
* 43-23 Colden Street, Flushing, NY 11355-3998, U.S.A. *
* Tel: 718-939-0928; Fax: 718-939-0656 (day time only--prefer email) *
* INTERNET:; Tax Exempt ID: 11-2999676 *
* FTP:// (IP *
* *
* http://www.friends- *
* *


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Date: Thu, 23 Oct 1997 16:04:22 -0400
From: Tak Utsumi <>
Subject: Part I/Chapter 1/#1 of 3 of proposed book
To: Multiple recipients of list <>
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Content-type: TEXT/PLAIN
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X-Comment: Collaborative Group/Domestic
X-Listprocessor-version: 6.0c -- ListProcessor by Anastasios Kotsikonas

<<October 18, 1997>>

Andrew Targowski
Professor of Computer Information Systems
Telcity USA Project Director
Vice President of Information Resource Management Association
Department of Business Information Systems
Kalamazoo, Michigan 49008
Office (616) 387-5406
Fax (616) 387-5710
Book Series Editor
Global Information Technology Management
Idea Group Publishing

Mr. John McLeod (Fax: 619-277-3930)
Society for Computer Simulation International (SCSI)
8484 La Jolla Shores Drive
La Jolla, CA 92037

David Crookall
Maison des Langues
UNSA (Univ de Nice-Sophia Antipolis)
98 bd E Herriot
BP 209, 06204 Nice Cedex 3
Telephone: +33 (0); Fax: ....55.36
9 rue du Var
06510 Carros
"Simulation & Gaming: An International Journal of Theory,
Practice, and Research" (Sage) :
Edition & manuscrits / Editorial matters :
Contacter / Contact = David Crookall (Editor/Redacteur)
a/at UNSA (voir ci-dessus / see above).
Guide for Authors =
(adresse temporaire / temporary address)
Autres (abonnements, etc.) / Other (subscription, etc.) :
Contacter / Contact = Sage Publications:
Telephone USA +1 805-499-0721 Fax: ...-0871
Telephone UK +44 (0)171 374 0645 Fax: ... 8741 &

Ms. Tina Evans Greenwood
Managing Editor, GLOSAS News and
Library Instruction Coordinator
Fort Lewis College
612 East 32nd Street
Durango, Colorado 81301-81301
Fax: 970-247-7149

Prof. Jules G. Kaplan
Director of the Internship Program
Instructor Dept. of Economics
University of Colorado, Campus 256
Boulder, CO 80309-0256
Fax: 303-492-7960
Fax: 303-417-0592

W. R. (Bill) Klemm, D.V.M., Ph.D.
Professor, Dept. VAPH, Mail Stop 4458
Texas A&M University
College Station, TX 77843-4458
Forum Enterprises, Inc.
9001 Grassburr Road
P.O. Box 5755
Bryan, TX 77805-5755
409-589-2665 (home)
FAX: 409-847-8981
Demos & literature available at our WWW site: -- photo of Dr. Klemm -- "Essence of FORUM" (5.5 min audio
annotation) and "Academic Deliverable Conferencing" (13 min audio annotation)
Web site of CAADE paper;

(1) Andrew:

This and following msgs are the Part I/Chapter 1 of my proposed book
Electronic Global University System and Services from your Idea-Group
Publishing without any diagrams, citations, etc. In a separate mail, I
am sending you its hard copy with them.

Many of citations are in Japanese, especially in this chapter. Pls
ignore them, since they are intended for web/hypertext in CD-ROM.

Electronic Colleagues:
Sorry, you cannot see them at this time -- till I will put them in a

The separate package includes a letter (dated September 25th) to you --
sorry, when I prepared it, I wanted to make a few changes. Then, the
GLOBAL LEARN DAY event on 10/12th came in.

Because of the nature of my personal recollections, I used the first
term in this chapter.

The text side of this chapter is mainly technical descriptions, but I
included many foot-notes as the behind stories. Pls feel free to let me
know which are to be included in the hard copy book.

I am more convinced that this type of book is more suited with CD-ROM,
web, or better yet, with virtual book approach (with the
combined use of Bill Klemm s FORUM computer-mediated multimedia
conferencing system and web).

(2) John McLeod:

I am also sending you in a separate mail its complete set. I would
appreciate it very much if you can kindly check its accuracy and let me
know. You may mark the hard copy with red pen and return to me, or you
may correct my following msgs and send them back to me via email.

(3) David Crookall:

In the summer of 1993, you kindly invited me to submit my recollections
on gaming and simulation which was to be appeared in the 25th
anniversary (Silver Jubilee) volume of your Simulation and Gaming.

Last year, you also requested it to me, as saying that you still wished
to have my contribution and could include it in your journal.

I would appreciate it very much if you can kindly extract only the parts
which you think appropriate for your journal, and send them back to me.
I will then work to re-organize them for my contribution to your

My Part I/Chapter 2 Global Lecture Hall (GLH) will come out soon
and be distributed. Some of that part may also be some of your

(4) Andrew and David:

Frankly speaking, to me, writing a recollection or memoir had a
synonymous connotation to the writing of a FINAL report of a project.
I had to psychologically struggle to convince myself that I am getting
OLD enough to write such a paper. However, I hope that this is still an
INTERIM report of my life with a possible project of combining this in a
web with virtual book approach in the near future.

As I said before, an attendee of my workshop in Florianopolis, Brazil
last June said to me that I am a living history (albeit flattery to
me), which could be like a sequoia tree in California. I was glad I
was not said to be like a PETRIFIED tree in New Mexico!!

(5) Electronic Colleagues:

I would appreciate it very much if you can kindly check/refine my poor
JaponEnglish. I welcome your comments.

(6) Tina and Jay:

I would need your help to put this (and other chapters) into web in the
near future. This is the start of constructing our

Electronic Colleagues:
I am anticipating to produce many slides which are to be hypertexted. I
would appreciate it very much if you can kindly help this process.
(BTW, Tapio Varis in Finland has been using some of those slides for his

(7) Those colleagues who sent me their contributing papers:

Tina told me that she will include your outline (or full paper) in her
web site of this book project by the end of this October:

(8) Bill Klemm also told me that his FORUM is now getting ready to be
accessed by any Internet users -- prelude for our virtual book project.

Best, Tak


Proposed Book
"Electronic Global University System and Services"

To be published by
Idea-Group Publishing Company
Harrisburg, PA
(In negotiation)

October 19, 1997

Takeshi Utsumi, Ph.D.
Laureate of Lord Perry Award for Excellence in Distance Education
Founder, Consortium for Affordable and Accessible Distance Education (CAADE)
President, Global University in the U.S.A. (GU/USA)
A Divisional Activity of GLOSAS/USA
(GLObal Systems Analysis and Simulation Association in the U.S.A.)
43-23 Colden Street, Flushing, NY 11355-3998, U.S.A.
Tel: 718-939-0928; Fax: 718-939-0656 (day time only--prefer email)
Part 1

Chapter 1


1 Computer Simulation and Gaming . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
1.1 Calculators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
1.2 Digital computer. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
1.3 Slow-time analog computer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
1.4 Repetitive analog computer. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
1.5 Continuous system simulation languages. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
1.6 Global time-sharing services. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
1.7 Hybrid computer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
1.8 Dumb terminal with monitor. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
1.9 All-in-one approach . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
1.10 Summer Computer Simulation Conference . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
1.11 War and peace gamings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
1.12 E-mail through global time-sharing service network. . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
1.13 Idea of globally distributed computer simulation system . . . . . . . . . .10

2 Packet-switching data communication network. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10
2.1 Failed effort to extend ARPANET to Japan. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11
2.2 Inception of global peace gaming. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11
2.3 E-mail as message exchange via computer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13
2.4 U.S.-Japan Energy, Resources and Environment (ERE) peace gaming . . . . . .14
2.5 Wireless data telecommunications. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14

3 Extension of U.S. packet-switching data telecommunication to Japan . . . . . .15
3.1 Inauguration of commercial packet-switching service in the U.S. . . . . . .15
3.2 Effort of extending U.S. VANs to overseas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15
3.3 Battle to inaugurate KDD s ICAS data telecommunication service. . . . . . .16
3.4 Prohibition of the use of e-mail. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .17
3.5 De-regulation of the Japanese telecommunications policy for the use
of e-mail through the U.S. government . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .18
3.6 Extension of NSF s CSNET to Japan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .`.19
3.7 Electronic Information Exchange System (EIES) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .20
3.8 Distance learning with EIES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .20
3.9 Marketing of U.S. software. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .21
3.10 Marketing of HEP. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .21
3.11 De-regulation for the use of receive-only antenna . . . . . . . . . . . . .22
3.12 Remarks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .22

REFERENCES:. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .24

INSERTIONS (Images, graphs and diagrams, etc.):. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .25

"History of science is science."
Andrew S. Targowski

1 Computer Simulation and Gaming

1.1 Calculators

After almost a year of literature survey, I decided to investigate
the effect of the heat of chemical reaction to the rate of diffusion,
for my Ph.D. thesis research at the Chemical Engineering Department
{1} of Polytechnic University (formerly Polytechnic Institute of
Brooklyn) in Brooklyn, New York. It was around 1960. Such chemical
reaction was a common phenomena, e.g., absorption of sulfuric or
nitric acid gas into water, etc., which later became one of major
concerns for the prevention of air pollution.

FOOTNOTES BEGIN********************************
{1} Graduate courses were given in evening, mainly for engineers who
worked in firms in day time in the greater New York City area, then
the mecca of chemical engineering firms.
In one evening, I had to call my mother in Japan, as regretting to
miss courses. When I got through to her with a fading voice due to
the reflection of short-waves on ionosphere, I said to her "Good
Evening!" She replied to me "Good Morning." Although I knew the
globe was round by head, I realized it by heart, and I found that
some time slot of day was available for extending excellent American
teachings to Japan for those unfortunate youngsters who could not
come aboard to study in the U.S.
This finding, which had been lingering in back of my head ever
since, further promoted my desire to extend American teachings to
overseas when I later saw a lone student studying with a TV monitor
(probably with a VCR player) in a large auditorium in the U.S. Navy s
Post Graduate School in Moterey, California in early 1970s. This
later became my motivation to create a Global University System with
global electronic distance education -- more later.
*********************************FOOTNOTES ENDS

Basing on the McCabe-Theile s two-film theory {2}, I constructed a
mathematical model of several highly non-linear simultaneous ordinary
differential equations with two split boundary conditions for the
chemical reaction {3}. I took a course on numerical calculations,
and started to solve the set of equations with a hand-cranking "Ti-
ger" calculator (see footnote {4} about an incident which led me to
create the logo of our GLOSAS/USA) {5}. My arm soon got tired. I
then found an electro-mechanical (not electronic) {6} "Monroe" calcu-
lator in a professor s room, and begged him to let me use it. It
still took me many hours and days to come up a single case study of
such a set of highly non-linear simultaneous differential equations.

FOOTNOTES BEGIN********************************
{2} Professor McCabe was one of my thesis advisors. This theory
postulated very thin films (in micro millimeters of thickness) in
both sides of gas and liquid in contact.

{3} I later learned that this was the first step of the computer
simulation. In contrast to conventional chemical engineering re-
search with slide rules, log-log plotting and dimensionless analysis,
such computer simulation with mathematical modeling of chemical
reaction (without expending actual experimental materials) was about
to forge ahead to become a vogue, thanks to the advent of computers.
I was a son of a surgeon medical doctor who was very much science
and mathematic oriented. For example, when I was in an elementary
school, he let me draw a triangle, and asked me to measure the three
angles and add them together. It always became 180 degrees (with a
few degrees off due to measurement errors) for any shape of triangle.
He never explained me why. Only after I learned Euclid geometry in a
secondary school, I got its reason. This let me learn deductive and
inductive methodologies of science, and I was fascinated with the
latter -- which led me to my involvement in computer simulation field

{4} In the summer of 1954, I was one of lucky Fulbright exchange
students on a steamship left Yokohama to Seattle which took almost
two weeks, for my study on designing chemical plants. The first
class compartment on Union Pacific railway was luxurious beyond my
expectation in poverty stricken Japan after the World War II. The
scenics of vast wild fields in Idaho and Utah and beautiful Rocky
mountains were immensely impressive. The flat corn fields to the
horizon over Nebraska and Kansas plains seen from the top of Red Rock
Theater nearby Denver, Colorado, were totally overwhelming to me.
This Fulbright experience (and others later) completely changed my
life. One incident/experience among many;
At the University of Nebraska, I was a poor student, and my pro-
fessor (Herbert T. Bates) kindly arranged an assistant job. It was a
research on the radiation of heat in annealing steel furnace for the
U.S. Steel Corporation. Radiation equation included temperature with
4th power, thus was very non-linear. I had to crank Tiger machine
many afternoons in his room.
Every time when I entered his office in late afternoon, I bowed to
him as a Japanese traditional greeting. One day, he jumped up from
his chair and shouted at me with an angry red face; "You shall never
bow to me any longer!! I am not a god!! I am just a student before
the truth of science as same as you are!!" I could not understand
what he was saying for a while because of my poor English at that
time. However, when I realized it, my whole body was shaken and my
eyes were full of tears. This was because I was educated with Japa-
nese militarism and feudalistic Confucianism to subserviently respect
my superiors, elders and teachers. (A journalist of Asahi Shimbun,
one of the largest newspapers in Japan, once said that Japan is the
country of slavery.) I could not expect to hear such words from a
revered professor in Japan.
This incident taught me American democratic spirit and entrepre-
neurship. Ever since, my subconscious desire was how to let my
Japanese friends have the same experience. This was one of the
reasons for the creation of the logo of our GLOSAS/USA. My accep-
tance speech for the Lord Perry Award for Excellence in Distance
Education in the fall of 1994 described the meaning and reasons of
the logo -- more later.
The GLObal Systems Analysis and Simulation Association in the
U.S.A. (GLOSAS/USA) was established in 1988 as a New York publicly
supported, non-profit, tax exempt (501(c)(3) and 509(a)(1)), educa-
tional service organization. Its membership is international and
open to all. The objective is to promote the quality and availabili-
ty of education and training through international course exchange by
means of telecommunication and information technologies. It will
also seek to provide in global scale all kinds of educational, cul-
tural, information, knowledge, vocational and community activities,
rather than being confined only to traditional educational offerings.
One GLOSAS project is to create a Global (electronic) University (GU)
System to facilitate communication between educators and learners
regardless of their location, socio-cultural background or physical
characteristics. GLOSAS attempts to provide cooperative, experien-
tial learning opportunities on the widest possible scale and for the
purpose of fostering peace and sustainable development.
On November 1, 1994, I had an honor of receiving the Lord Perry
Award for Excellence in Distance Education from the University of the
World. The Award is the most prestigious accolade in the field of
distance education. Lord Perry established Open University in the
U.K., which was emulated in many other countries. A distinguished
group of prior recipients includes Professor Yash Pal of India, a
theoretical physicist, former Secretary of the Department of Science
and Technology and Laureate of Marconi International Fellowship
Award; Dr. Arthur C. Clarke, CBE, of the United Kingdom and Sri
Lanka, well known author and the first to suggest the possibility of
using geosynchronous satellites for communications; and His Excellen-
cy Jose Chaves, Ambassador of Colombia to the United Nations. This
award gives credibility to the fledgling academic field of global
electronic distance education. It also encourages our colleagues who
are now striving for its spread to every corner of the world with the
use of various telecommunication media for betterment of mankind and
world peace keeping in the 21st century.

{5} The GLObal Systems Analysis and Simulation (GLOSAS) project on
Energy, Resources, and Environment (ERE) system intends to construct
an infrastructure for global peace gaming (a term coined by me in
1971) -- specially on the issue of "environment and sustainable
development" in developing countries. With computer simulation and a
combination of advanced telecommunication channels, such gaming will
enable experts and laymen in many countries to collaborate in discov-
ering new solutions for world crises -- with rational and critical
analysis and thinking basing on reliable "facts and figures." The
purpose is to train would-be decision-makers on policy analysis and
formulation, crisis management, conflict resolution and negotiation
techniques with consensus building, for win-win cooperation for the
promotion of an authentic sense of global citizenship.
Experience shows that the expertise necessary to participate in
peace gaming does not yet exist in many parts of the world. The
GLOSAS/Global University Project can help educate future participants
and promote peace by educational course exchanges and joint research.

{6} A few years later when I went back to Japan, I mentioned my use of
electronic computer to one of my friends. Our discussions did not
match well for a while, since he was thinking of electro-mechanical
calculator, instead of electronic computer.
Japanese technology always lags several years behind the U.S. --
and the gap is now getting wider especially in the age of information
and knowledge, and this trend will never be reversed due to their
culture and tradition -- more later.
*********************************FOOTNOTES ENDS

1.2 Digital computer

A friend of mine then suggested that I should take a programming
course for a new electronic computer IBM 650. It was with a tedious
machine language, and I easily got lost with it. I said to myself
"Down with IBM!!" and quitted the course after a few days of atten-
dance. I was completely lost and frustrated, couldn t find what to
do for many weeks and was deeply depressed. However, I had to solve
the mathematical model to finish up my Ph.D. study.

1.3 Slow-time analog computer

One day, I was wondering around the floor of Electrical Engineer-
ing Department and found a strange machine. It was a slow-time
analog computer with about 200 to 300 amplifiers {7}. It was 6 to 8
foot high, about 20 to 30 foot long, and 2 to 3 foot thick -- there
were two banks of them, each having one servo multiplier immersed in
an oil bath. The programming board was just like a telephone switch-
ing board with long codes which were to be inserted in large holes on
the programming board. When a code was released from a hole, it
snatched back into its place on a table.

FOOTNOTES BEGIN********************************
{7} This machine was later sent to Indian Institute of Technology.
Analog computer is consisted of amplifiers and multipliers which
are processed in parallel with lightening speed of electrons. This
parallel processing concept later became the massively parallel
processing of digital computers, as replacing the amplifiers and
multipliers with digital processing chips -- sometimes a million of
As combining this concept with packet-switching network, I coined
a term "global neural computer network" in 1981 which was later used
by Vice President Al Gore in his speech. Sun Microsystems now has
its motto "Network is Computer."
Several systems will be interconnected via Internet to form a
virtual computer, and the total system will act as one system with
parallel processing of those subsystems in individual countries.
Here each game player (more later about global peace gaming in dis-
tributed mode) with his/her submodel and database corresponds to a
neuron, an Internet node to a synapsis and the Internet to the nerves
of a global brain.
*********************************FOOTNOTES ENDS

I started using it with amazement. After programming my model, it
became a spaghetti board as running the codes from corners to cor-
ners. I could see a multiplier disk floating in an oil bath slowly
moving to finish a multiplication. To change a numerical parameter,
I had to turn a large potentiometer on the desk. The computational
outputs were plotted on a large (almost a foot by a foot) plotter
which was often used for industrial process control in chemical
plants. It was very slow and insensitive to parameter changes. I
had to watch patiently the outcome on the plotter if a new parameter
setting could shoot its target value at the end of computation.
Since my goal was to come up a chart of coefficients of chemical
reaction with the level of its activation energy, I had to spend many
nights to repeat similar computations, but I still could not see when
I could finish my research study {8}.

FOOTNOTES BEGIN********************************
{8} Later, I learned that this machine was built by Bell Lab in New
Jersey and used for gun tracking calculation on the Battleship Mis-
souri, on which General MacArthur signed the unconditional surrender
of Japan in September of 1945.
I also learned that this gun bombarded Hitachi-City (located about
150 miles north-east of Tokyo) in the spring of 1945, where Hitachi
originated their business. This slow-time analog computer had to be
used to aim the big guns on the Battleship Missouri.
At that time, I was at my home in Ina-City, Nagano-Prefecture,
which is about the center of Japan main island, northwest of Mt. Fuji
and about 150 miles from Tokyo. We could hear the roaring of the gun
bombardments. All family members were huddled together and trembled
with scare throughout a night.
Professor Akira Onishi of Soka University in Japan (also the
creator of FUJI socio-economic simulation model -- more later -- and
Vice President of ISAGA/Japan) told me his horrible experience of
witnessing heavy casualties (even those victims whose heads were
blown away) in Hitachi-City, where he was at that time.
*********************************FOOTNOTES ENDS

1.4 Repetitive analog computer

One of the professors then kindly introduced me a part time job
for the operation of a newly acquired "repetitive" analog computer
(manufactured by Electronic Associates, Inc. (EAI) in New Jersey) at
Shell Oil Headquarters in Rockefeller Plaza Building in Manhattan. I
assisted their jobs of simulating chemical reactions, process con-
trol, business operation, etc. in day time, and worked on my thesis
in night time -- often till mid-night -- with free of charge for the
computer usage {9}. This analog computer gave me substantial speed
increase. I could watch the computational results on an oscilloscope
if a parameter setting could shoot a desired target, and if did, I
could read its digital number out of analog/digital converter {10}.
Though I had to record the number manually, this repetitive operation
could save my time tremendously for trial and error calculations.
However, its 500 or so amplifiers were quickly used up for my simula-
tion model so that I had to hang up many extra capacitors and resist-
ers on the programming board to supplement amplifiers {11}.

FOOTNOTES BEGIN********************************
{9} This activity led me to join Simulation Council, Inc. (SCI), a
non-profit professional organization, which was founded by John
McLeod in early 1950s, and which name was later changed to the Soci-
ety of Computer Simulation International, according to my suggestion.
In 1970, as Program Chairman, I created the Summer Computer Simula-
tion Conference (SCSC) (which I named) of the SCI. The SCSC later
became the largest conference in the simulation field.

{10} I learned the possibility of digitizing analog current which
technology was later proliferated for the advancement of multimedia
via Internet.
In the summer of 1972, I visited a scientist in Santa Barbara,
California. He showed me his new digitalization equipment for music.
He played a symphony by Beethoven and fed into ARPANET (Advanced
Research Project Agency Network of the U.S. Defense Department, the
predecessor of Internet), which started with only four institutions
(*) in late 1960s to receive it with another mini-computer. I could
not distinguish the one I heard directly with his LP record player
from the one which went through ARPANET. This was probably because
the ARPANET trunk line was not much congested with a few users at
only sixty four universities at that time. We now often encounter
with poor quality of Internet telephony, especially in international
arena across oceans -- more later.
(*) The four institutions were the University of California in Los
Angeles, the University of California in Santa Barbara, the
University of Utah, and Stanford Research Institute in Palo Alto,

{11} In the summer of 1945, I was at the third grade of Matsumoto
Middle School (equivalent to the senior of junior high school) in
Matsumoto-City, Nagano Prefecture, Japan. I was working at a Japa-
nese Army s secret air-base from where Kamikaze pilots departed -- we
never had an occasion attacked by American airplanes, though there
were several newest models of fighters -- I learned later that they
were copied after German s Messerschmit, which model was brought from
Germany by a submarine and was later stored at a gymnasium of Tokyo
Institute of Technology, my alma mater. (That was probably because
the President Koroku Wada designed an airplane which hold the world
long distance record -- which was more than flying non-stop to the
U.S., albeit one-way.) The Kamikaze pilots were a few years elder
than I. They flew off with bi-plane used for training which had only
about 100 miles per hour speed -- no match with high speed Granman
fighters. Later I learned that they were decoys to American
aircrafts -- i.e., while they were detected by radar to lure American
fighters on one side, Kamikaze Zeros attacked on the other side -- it
was truly the savage war.
We were prepared to die at guerilla war (which could have been
much fierce than Vietnam war) -- we were trained by fanatic Japanese
militarism to die only after killing, at least, one enemy, with a
bamboo spear!! This was for the glory of Emperor, a living God of
Japanese Shintoism, and his hiding cave after American s landing on
Japan main island, was being constructed in a mountain near to our
town. The atomic bombs dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki ended the
war and saved my life. (In spite of such fanatic training, I was
skeptical if Japan could win the war, and studied secretly in a
hiding place, mathematics, science and English, which was prohibited
as the enemy s language.)
After hearing Emperor s declaration to end the World War II from a
noisy radio on August 15, 1945, my father and I visited a friend who
lived about 5 miles away in a rural mountain area. While walking
through a forest, a dove descended on my shoulder. My father was
scared and tried to drive it away with his straw hat and stick. The
dove flew up but came back on my shoulder again and again, and final-
ly left into the woods. Later, I learned that the dove is a symbol
of peace when Raymond Roy designed the box of a Japanese cigarette
named "Peace" with a dove. Recalling the incident with my father and
Bible s words "Blessed are the peacemakers, For they shall be called
sons of God," I thought I had a mission to devote my life for the
world peace-keeping with the use of advanced information and telecom-
munication technologies.
A few days later, my brother and I heard that Japanese army were
disposing their materials. We hurried to a nearby Japanese army air
base and found a big box in their warehouse. It was very heavy so
that we thought it had to be very valuable. We loaded it on a cart
and started running to our home. An army officer chased us as swing-
ing his Japanese sword high over his head and shouted to us "That
belongs to Emperor!!." We yelled back to him "War is over, what s
the heck with Emperor!" He stopped chasing us with a sad face. It
happened to be something of a short-wave transceiver with large
vacuum tubes and transformers. We buried it in deep underground if
an American GI might visit us to find it out. However, fiddling of
it made me getting interested in electronics, e.g., transistor radio
with a tiny stone, ear-phone and antenna across my small studying
room a few years later.
While I was studying chemical engineering (which is on the design
of petroleum refinery, petrochemical and chemical plants and cement
factory, etc.) at Tokyo Institute of Technology from 1949 to 1954, my
interest in electronics grew to build super-heterodyne radios, high-
fidelity audio set, and even a TV receiver for which experimental
broadcasting was just started by NHK (a quasi-government broadcasting
corporation) in Tokyo. I often designed them with a copy-and-paste
procedure, as taking one part of a set from one example circuit
diagram and another part from another diagram. I visited many stores
in Akiwabara in Tokyo, which became a mecca of electronics discount
stores in the world. I could earn a small money as selling some of
them I built -- I received even a job offer from some of those elec-
tronic shops. Incidentally, Sony was a small shop and they often
visited our professors for technical consultations. TDK was estab-
lished by our alumni.
When I found miniature vacuum tubes in some of the shops in
Akiwabara which were disposed by the U.S. Army camps, I was complete-
ly surprised with American s advanced electronic technology, since I
was accustomed with large vacuum tubes of diode and triode. My
desire to study abroad in the U.S. was then triggered.
One of the important things I learned with this hobby was that
there was analogy between those distillation columns of refinery and
vacuum tubes of electronic set. This analogy was later extended my
interest in to the process control simulation of petrochemical plants
with analog and digital computers. This was also extended to analogy
and simulation of socio-economic simulation models after learning
systems dynamics methodology from Professor Jay Forrester at Sloan
School of Management of Massachusetts Institute of Technology (M.I.T.) in
the summer of 1967. Although I did not take, I was offered
a research job there which later became "Limit to Growth" of the Club
of Rome.
Once I decided to study in America, I gave up all of my electronic
hobby, and concentrated on learning English as immersing myself all
day from morning to night. I woke up by American Army s radio broad-
casting, went to English conversation school in day time, and took a
tutorial lesson from an American missionary in evening -- sometimes
as exchanging with my teaching Japanese to him. On several week-
ends, I took sandwiches and went to a movie theater where "Gone with
the Wind" was being shown, after studying its scenario with a dictio-
nary. It was a very long movie, but I stayed in the theater from
morning to evening. Even after many viewings, I could not still get
what a black woman shouting from a window to beautiful Vivian Lee
with a heavy southerner s accent. Vivian s silhouette over a large
red sun setting on the horizon at the end of the movie caught my
heart. She became one of my idols ever since. This experience on
immersing oneself to learn English was inherited in my pursue of
creating global electronic distance education.
*********************************FOOTNOTES ENDS

1.5 Continuous system simulation languages

Soon after I moved to Mobil Oil Headquarters in Manhattan in 1964,
I encountered with a continuous system simulation language program,
Modified Integrator Analog Digital Simulator (MIDAS) made by Martin
Marrietta Corporation in Florida. It used a digital computer (e.g.,
IBM 704 with vacuum tubes, 7040 with transistors, etc.). Its pro-
gramming language was, however, very tedious, just like for analog
computer programming diagram with adders, integrators, multipliers
and potentiometers, etc. The diagrams with their pictorial icons and
connecting lines often overflowed even on large sheets for complex
modeling. Each of those mathematical operations had to be punched on
a separate card. It did not have any graphic print-out feature so
that a friend of mine (George Armstrong) brought me a subroutine
program which could plot the computational results with ASCII charac-
ters on x-y axes by high-speed line-printer, which graphic was simi-
lar to the one I could plot with the slow-time analog computer at the
Polytechnic University {12}. A few months later, Martin Marrietta
upgraded MIDAS with MIMIC to circumvent the difficulty of analog
computer type programming, i.e., MIMIC was equation-oriented digital
simulation programming system so that we could just copy differential
equations with its programming language without separating each
mathematical operation.

FOOTNOTES BEGIN********************************
{12} Although I am not claiming to be the inventor, as far as I knew,
this was the first time when digital computer was used to draw such
plotting with line-printer which fed continuous paper only in one
direction. As soon as I presented its plotted results at a confer-
ence of SCI, this plotting subroutine was copied immediately among
simulationists, and spread like a wild fire in the dry hay field -- a
forerunner of shareware -- the rest is the history. It was a kid s
play compared with nowadays dazzling multimedia graphics on a desk-
top computer.
With my previous experience with analog computers, such graphical
plotting was by nature. However, other colleagues who never had
analog computer experiences clung with tables of rows and columns of
numbers printed by digital computer. They insisted to have many
digits by digital computer, even though 3, or at the best, 4 digits
were mostly good enough in chemical fields due to crude measurement
equipments. I learned how difficult it was to change "mind" for new
technology, even among high-tech specialists on computer programming.
When I went back to Japan in 1972, I was surprised to find that
Japan Club of Rome led by a professor of the University of Tokyo used
MIDAS to simulate world dynamics in three dimensional mode, i.e.,
with the use of a mathematical model which consisted of several
partial differential equations. They were several years behind of
the U.S. on the use of simulation languages, and their use of partial
differential equations were mere mathematical play -- not simulation,
since there is no continuous diffusion of socio-economic activities
across national boundaries, except climatological consideration.
Yet, a Japanese industrial group led by Koji Kobayashi, then CEO of
NEC and a senior alumni of my Matsumoto junior college, spent mil-
lions of dollars to support their activities.
Such misleadings of the Japanese national policies and projects by
the graduates of the University of Tokyo were common; e.g., (a) the
designs of the world largest battleships, Musashi and Yamato, of
Japanese Navy were led by Rector Hiraga of the university, which big
guns were no use when aircraft was a major decisive factor -- they
should had been converted to aircrafts, (b) Japanese Zero fighter
pilots were surprised to find American and British fighters already
waiting when they flew to Manila, Philippines or Singapore. They
later found a strange electronic equipment in their air bases, and
that was a radar with Yagi antenna invented by the president
Hidetsugu Yagi of my alma mater, Tokyo Institute of Technology, which
later became household use for TV reception throughout the world. A
TV documentary told me that, since Japanese Navy did not have the
radar, they lost Midway sea-battle which became a turning point of
the World War II, i.e., Japanese lost their war because they did not
use their own technology effectively, (c) now defunct NHK s analog-
oriented High Definition TV (HDTV) project with $3 to 5 billion
dollar R&D funds, (d) the 5th Generation Computer project with $300
to 500 million dollars, (e) political and financial scandals of
Japanese Ministry of Finance and prominent banks and security firms
such as Sumitomo, Daiwa, Dai-ichi Kangin, Nomura, etc., etc.
No body whistles a blow to them lest they should risk their lives
-- in Japanese society, such whistle-blowers were often assassinated
or murdered by mafia (yakuza) -- see "BlackMail" in Business Week,
July 21, 1997, Page 42-43.
Similar incidents: When I attended the national conference of
Fulbright Association in Washington, D.C. a few years ago, an elegant
lady approached me and thanked me earnestly. I could not get why.
She was expressing her sincere gratitude for the deed what Mr.
Sugihara, Japanese Consulate General in Lithuania, did for Jews just
prior to the World War II. He issued visa to thousands of Jews so
that they could escape the holocaust of Nazi, via the Siberian rail-
road to Japan and then to Shanghai or Hong Kong. Since he did so
against the instruction from the Japanese Ministry of Foreign Affairs
(which minister, Mr. Matsuoka, made a Japan-Germany pact with Hit-
ler), he had hard time to find his living after he came back to Japan
at the end of the war.
I told the lady of his aftermath, and said to her that I was also
in the same situation, e.g., a black sheep among Japanese or even
expelled from her society, after expended my efforts of extending
U.S. data telecommunications networks to Japan and of de-regulating
the Japanese telecommunications policies on the use of e-mail. The
lady then said to me with a solemn face, "That s because you believed
in the Absolute God!" I was shocked to hear that, because I did not
tell her that I was educated to be a Christian by my mother who was
educated by the father of Ambassador Reischauer at Tokyo Women s
University and was one of the close disciples of Kanzo Uchimura, who
was educated by Professor Clark from Amherst College and who origi-
nated the so-called "Mukyo-Kai = non-churchism" Christianity in
Japan. After hearing her voice, Bible s words flashed my mind;
"Blessed are those who hunger and thirst for righteousness, For they
shall be filled" and "Bless are those who are persecuted for righ-
teousness sake, For theirs is the kingdom of heaven." I felt that I
might have lived to fulfill God s will.
*********************************FOOTNOTES ENDS

Probably because one of external board directors of Mobil Oil was
James Watson, then Chairman of IBM Corporation, Mobil was a beta
testing site for IBM at that time. One day, an IBM salesman brought
me a deck of punched card and a user manual of Digital Simulation
Language for IBM 7090 (DSL/90), another continuous system simulation
language program. The user manual was stamped as their internal
secret program {13}. This and its successor, Continuous System Simu-
lation Language 360 (CSSL/360) was much easier than MIDAS or hybrid
computer, though the computer speed was much, much slower than analog
or hybrid. Although there was a merit with MIMIC, I chose to use
DSL/90 for my simulation work, and often called its originator (a
Chinese from Singapore) at IBM/San Jose, California office whenever I
encountered with any error messages {14}.

FOOTNOTES BEGIN********************************
{13} In 1980s, Fujitsu, Hitachi, and Mitsubishi Electric (major Japa-
nese computer manufacturers) were developing mainframe computers with
support from the Japanese Ministry for International Trade and Indus-
try (MITI) to catch up IBM. They thought that IBM mainframe s oper-
ating system was so proliferated in Japan that it had to be of public
domain, and it was beyond their capability to develop by themselves.
They tried to get its latest version from American firms free of
charge. They later had to pay IBM the substantial amount of penal-
ties, e.g., $800 million to $1 billion by Fujitsu <Pollack, Andrew,
1997, "IBM and Fujitsu Reach Agreement," The New York Times, May 12,

{14} He often confessed his envy for my simulation work saying that
real pleasure of simulation would come with the applications of
simulation languages rather than the construction of the language
Ever since, this has been continuing to this date, i.e., whenever
I encounter with any difficulties on the use of newly purchased
software, I often consult to its technical support by phone. This
subsequently led to my conviction that electronic distance education
requires well trained facilitators, as is the case of the successful
operation of National Technological University. This will be the key
factor for our Global University System to succeed -- more later.
*********************************FOOTNOTES ENDS

1.6 Global time-sharing services

As being the beta site of IBM, there was also an IBM 1401 with a
large magnetic storage drum which was hooked with telex system, a
forerunner of in-company global time-sharing system. One evening
when I was using it for my statistical analysis, its response got
suddenly slow down. A friend of mine exclaimed "Aha, Australians
must have started using it!" since it was about when their office
time began in Sidney {15}.

FOOTNOTES BEGIN********************************
{15} This was my first time when I started getting interested in global
telecommunication networks. I learned that the telex system from
Sidney, Australia went to Hong Kong, to Singapore, to India, to
London, and then to New York across the Atlantic. I then wondered
why it did not come from Sidney to the West Coast of the U.S. across
the Pacific and then to New York. I further learned later that the
global telex system was mostly laid out by Cable & Wireless Company
of the Great Britain for their colonial governance, e.g., Hong Kong
as a hub of telex in Far Eastern Asia, instead of Japan. This was
why Kokusai Denshin Denwa (KDD), Japanese overseas telecommunication
authority, considered Cable & Wireless in Hong Kong as their arch-
rival for their desire to make Tokyo as the financial center in Asia.
This rivalry was one of the factors when I tried to extend the U.S.
packet-switching network to Japan -- more later.
According to The New York Times a few years ago, Kaiser of Germany
sent a telex message to the German Embassy in Washington, D.C. as
soon as the World War I started, saying that if Mexico would ally
with Germany and if Germany would win the war, Mexico could have
their old territories of California, Arizona, New Mexico, and a part
of Texas. The telex was eavesdropped by British in London. However,
British could not send it directly to President Wilson with fear of
infringing privacy of telecommunication. British forged it as if it
was found at the German Embassy in Mexico City, and submitted to
President Wilson.
This incidence showed how important global telecommunication
system is, especially for international affairs.
*********************************FOOTNOTES ENDS

1.7 Hybrid computer

At the central research lab of Mobil Oil in New Jersey, I had an
occasion of simulating chemical reactions in the shale oil retort in
Colorado. This was to extract oil out of rocks from Rocky mountains,
which reservoir was said more than that in Middle Eastern countries.
It was around 1965 to 1966 when major oil companies were getting
afraid of oil crunch which came in early 1970s. Crashed shale oil
rocks were fed from the top of the retort. Hot heat from burning oil
was fed from the bottom of the retort tube, and heated air was fed
from the middle of the tube. The simulation model was consisted of
several highly non-linear simultaneous partial differential equations
in four dimensions (xyz-axes of space and time) with three split
boundary conditions at the top, the middle and the bottom of the
retort. I could use a newly constructed Beckman Instruments hybrid
computer in Richmond, California, for almost exclusively about a half
year -- continuously day and night. The computer had two banks of
analog computers (with 500 amplifiers on each) which were hooked to
Xerox s Sigma real-time digital computer {16}.

FOOTNOTES BEGIN********************************
{16} This machine was supposed to be shipped to NASA, but it was sit-
ting there for almost a year until NASA could pay for it (about $1
million). This machine was later used for simulation of EAGLE lunar
module landing on the moon at Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
Engineers from Boeing Aircraft Company came later to start using
it also. I asked them what they were simulating. They replied to me
"an airplane which can fly to Tokyo in 30 minutes, but Tokyo is too
near so that it has to fly around the globe several times before its
landing in Tokyo." I said "Crazy!!" Lo be hold! It became a reali-
ty with space shuttle in late 1970s. I was also surprised to learn
later that Okinawa Air Force base was one of its emergency landing
I then realized that computer simulation was at the cutting edge
of science, engineering and technology, and I was very excited to
help promoting it when I later created SCSC -- more later.
*********************************FOOTNOTES ENDS

I then had to convert this model with DSL/90 (and later DSL/94),
as running it on IBM 7094 at Mobil Oil Headquarters many nights {17}.
It was around 1966 to 1967. Even though I used the 6th-order predic-
tor/corrector numerical integration method, some graphical outputs
from a line-printer often had very severe fluctuations on concentra-
tion curves which were out of sense. I later learned that it was
caused by the truncation error, and a scientist at M.I.T. dubbed it
as a "Butterfly Theory" {18}.

FOOTNOTES BEGIN********************************
{17} It was a bulky machine with many magnetic tape drives. Its high-
speed line printer often spewed out continuous paper to ceiling high.
I was later surprised to learn that its 32 K words memory was much
smaller than that of the first desktop personal computer IBM/PC with
Intel s 8080 processing chip.

{18} The scientist experienced similar truncation error for his global
climatology study. He said that such a truncation error might corre-
spond to a tiny butterfly s swinging her wings in a rainforest in
Amazon and start causing global weather change.
*********************************FOOTNOTES ENDS

1.8 Dumb terminal with monitor

While I took some courses at Sloan School of Management of M.I.T.,
I worked at Stone and Webster Engineering Company in Boston on the
design of ethylene plant, the most basic of petrochemical industry,
with computer simulation of chemical reactions in naphtha cracking
furnace and of process control of the entire ethylene plant which
total cost ranged from $800 million to $1 billion dollars. Since the
plastic industry with synthetic organic chemistry was just getting to
bloom, and since Stone and Webster was one of a few major design
companies, demand for building such ethylene plants from around the
world was enormous.

By that time, IBM produced Model 360, and their Continuous System
Modeling Program (CSMP) with MIDAS type programming was converted to
the one with the DSL/90 type equation-oriented simulation language,
and dubbed as CSMP/360. I had a dumb terminal in my office which was
hooked to IBM 360 time-sharing machine in Danver, Connecticut, one of
the first time-sharing service offering vendors -- via a leased line.
Instead of submitting our job with many boxes of punched cards to an
IBM/360 in a computer room, I could operate the time-sharing machine
from my office with similar graphical output as the one from a line-
printer. We then attached a storage type oscilloscope made by
Tektronix and could view the computational output on it -- it was in
late 1960s and the forerunner to the similar computer screen
outputting with a desktop personal computer nowadays.

1.9 All-in-one approach

In parallel to the above activity, I also developed a combination
of CSMP/360 simulation model for a petrochemical process control
dynamics with a large material balance program, a statistical analy-
sis program (BMD) and various hill-climbing optimization programs
(including linear-programming). We dubbed it as Stone & Webster All
Purpose Simulator and Optimizer (SWAPSO) <Utsumi, T., C. H. Jones and
L. Chin, 1970>. While CSMP simulated the dynamics of ethylene plant
process control, the material balance program checked the input-
output balance of individual units with statistical analysis at a
specified time interval. Each of three component programs were huge
at that time. This was the so-called "All-in-One" approach nowadays

FOOTNOTES BEGIN********************************
{19} Using similar techniques, I later postulated the possibility of
integrating three methodologies of systems dynamics (originated by
Jay Forrester of M.I.T.), econometrics (originated by Lawrence R.
Kleine of the University of Pennsylvania and economic Nobel Laure-
ate), and the Input-Output (originated by Wassily Leontief at Harvard
University and economic Nobel Laureate).
*********************************FOOTNOTES ENDS

1.10 Summer Computer Simulation Conference

I presented our papers on those activities at the Conference on
Applications of Continuous System Simulation Language in San Francis-
co, California in 1969 which was organized by Bob Brennan of IBM.
After listening those papers, he requested me to organize the follow-
ing year s conference as Program Chairman. I duly accepted his
request with the condition of changing its long name to Summer Com-
puter Simulation Conference (SCSC), since there was a similar confer-
ence in competition for discrete simulation group, which was usually
held in winter time. General Chairman of the 1970 SCSC was David
Miller of Denelcore in Denver, Colorado, which company produced
analog and hybrid computers for the U.S. defense and NASA facilities.
Since the computer simulation was becoming wide-spread, ubiquitous
tool in research and development and engineering fields of every
disciplines, I designed the conference with multidisciplinary ap-
proach (Utsumi, T., 1970, "A Message from the Program Chairman"). It
was a tremendous success and the first of its kind. The most memora-
ble presentation was the computer simulation of global climatology by
Dr. Kasahara of the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR)
in Boulder, Colorado, with the use of Cray s supercomputer. His
presentation let me understand that the computer simulation of such a
global system was possible with rational and critical thinking and
analysis. This notion led me to have a session on macrosystem simu-
lation during the following 1971 SCSC.

1.11 War and peace gamings

Thanks to the success of this SCSC in Denver in 1970, I was then
appointed to conduct the 1971 SCSC in Boston as General Chairman
{20}. It gathered more than 600 attendees, the largest ever for SCSC
(Utsumi, T., 1971a, "A Message from the General Chairman" {21}). We
could peek the future of virtual reality with 3D graphics of an
airplane circulating over an air field to land on its runway. A
session on macrosystem simulation was moderated by John McLeod, and a
team member of the "Limit to Growth" project at M.I.T. presented an
overview of their activity prior to its publication a half year
later. A professor from the U.S. Naval Post Graduate School in
Monterey, California presented his work on war gaming. His last
words were "War gaming cannot be perfect without having its models
tied together with simulation models of civilian sectors" (Utsumi,
T.., 1971b, "Peace and War Gaming") As recalling industrial, urban
and world dynamics studied at M.I.T., I said to myself "Well, we may
be able to help them as doing, at least, the simulation of the civil-
ian part" (Utsumi, T., 1971c, "Comparison between War and Peace
Games" {22}). This culminated in my motivation for creating Globally
Collaborative Environmental Peace Gaming {23} and Global (electronic)
University System to supply its game players -- more later.

FOOTNOTES BEGIN********************************
{20} Program Chairman was Edward Mitchell of Raytheon Corporation.
He was using Continuous System Simulation Language (CSSL), another
one made by a Korean scientist. When Mitchell wanted to improve it,
I provided him with my knowledge about CSMP/360. He then combined
CSSL and CSMP/360 to come up Advanced Continuous Simulation Language
(ACSL) which I named. ACSL is the continuous simulation language
program used most widely nowadays.

{21} My message as General Chairman was appreciated by the attendees,
saying that I was the first person who related Bible with computer

{22} If education bases on suspicion, it will foster fear among chil-
dren. The military of its society would need to conduct war game
with gaming simulation. The government of the society would also
need to conduct conflict management and crisis management when things
get worse. The ultimate purpose of the war game is to win the war if
it ever happens. The war game in this situation will be the so-
called zero sum approach, i.e., the size of the pie will be limited.
When a war happens, it bounds to be a nuclear war. However, due to
the devastating destructive power of nuclear bombs, both sides would
On the other hand, if education bases on understanding, it will
foster trust among children. The situation will be for the so-called
plus-sum game, i.e., the participating parties will collaboratively
and collegially try to increase the size of a pie with peace gaming,
which ultimate goal is to prevent war, thus reaching win-win coopera-

{23} There was a movie "War and Peace" of Leo Tolstoy around that time.
After viewing it with a girl friend, I thought that "If there is a
war game, why not a peace game?" John McLeod said later that I was
the one who coined the word "Peace Gaming."
*********************************FOOTNOTES ENDS

1.12 E-mail through global time-sharing service network

After moving to Mitsubishi Research Institute (MRI) in Tokyo in
1972 {24}, I devoted myself for the promotion of the use of computer
simulation and systems dynamics with time-sharing of IBM/360 (which
was only one of the two in Japan at that time). I also had to come
to the U.S. to attend many conferences. This frustrated me greatly,
not only with its hectic schedules, but also by the fact that I could
not keep contacts with valuable friends whom I had fruitful conversa-
tions at those conferences, due to slow airmail and high cost of
overseas telephone calls and telex messages from Tokyo. On the other
hand, GE s time-sharing service (GEISCO, the predecessor of GENIE)
was extended to Tokyo out of Cleveland, Ohio around that time. I
immediately subscribed to it {25}. Whenever I found its users during
my trip in the U.S., I borrowed their terminals of GENIE and could
contact my secretary in Tokyo by e-mail. However, its users were a
few among my American colleagues, and its e-mail service was only for
its users in the same organization, but not with any persons of other

FOOTNOTES BEGIN********************************
{24} A few years before, my father arranged an interview with a profes-
sor of the University of Tokyo for a teaching job. After interview-
ing with him, I was accepted. I reported this to Rector Shigeru
Nambara of the university, one of my family friends. He said to me
with a bitter face, "Don t come here. It is so stifle that nothing
would be interesting." (Rector Nambara was a friend of James Conant,
President of Harvard University, and the person who introduced Ameri-
can education system to Japan after the World War II -- it previously
emulated the German system).
When I was working on my Ph.D. thesis under Dr. Donald F. Othmer
(*) at Polytechnic Institute of Brooklyn in late 1950s, my Japanese
employer, Asahi Chemical Industries, Ltd., ordered me to return to
Japan. Dr. Othmer stopped me saying "Finish your Ph.D., then you can
deal with the whole matter of Japan." (This was realized with my
effort of introducing the U.S. packet-switching data telecommunica-
tion networks to Japan -- more later.)
After serving General Chairman of the SCSC in Boston in 1971, I
thought it would be the time to return to Japan. I reported a job
offer from MRI and bid a farewell to Dr. Othmer. He then said to me
with a sad voice "Haven t you graduated from Japan yet?"
As a metaphor, his suggestion in 1950s seemed me to encourage my
climbing to the top of Mt. Fuji, the highest mountain in Japan,
instead of Mt. Hoei which is located just below the summit of Mt.
Fuji, and his words in 1972 were to direct me to climb Mt. Everest,
the highest mountain on the world.
Our GLOSAS projects (e.g., establishments of Globally Collabora-
tive Environmental Peace Gaming and Global University System, etc. --
more later) may correspond to the climbing up Mr. Everest. They are
formidable, but challenging tasks -- Professor Clarke of Amherst left
his famous words at his farewell, to students (including Kanzo
Uchimura) of the University of Hokkaido, "Boys, Be Ambitious!!" They
may last millennium as many of universities in Europe (e.g., Coimbra
University in Portugal, etc.).
These incidents obviously changed my life course, and I have been
grateful to those great educators for their guidances -- they taught
me wisdom more than knowledge.
(*) Dr. Othmer was the world renowned educator, chemical
technologist and philanthropist. While at Eastman Kodak, he invented
a process which can concentrate acetic acid (vinegar) and it was the
inevitable necessity to produce Celluloid for photographic film.
Kirk/Othmer Encyclopedia (more than 10 volumes) can be found at
libraries of almost any chemical firms. He hold more than 100
patents, and gave away tens of millions dollars to hospitals,
libraries and churches.
Right after the war, he was one of the team members who
investigated the status of Japanese chemical industry during the war.
He was surprised to find that Japanese produced aviation gasoline in
North Korea out of rocks with abundant hydroelectric power from a
newly constructed dam on a river between North Korea and China (then,
Manchuria) (i.e., from calcium carbonate to acetylene and to butanol
by isomerization, the so-called Reppe (Czechoslovakian chemist)
Process), compared with German s production from coal (i.e., by
reaction of carbon monoxide with hydrogen by Fisher-Tropsh Process).
He then became fond of Japan and made many trips there.

{25} I experimented it with a dumb terminal with Katakana (Japanese
alphabets) inputs and received the same from GEISCO -- it is now
common to have e-mail in Japanese language via Internet.
*********************************FOOTNOTES ENDS

1.13 Idea of globally distributed computer simulation system

On the other hand, the "Limit to Growth" (which was the outgrowth
of the World Dynamics by Jay Forrester of M.I.T.) was published by
Readers Digest in the spring of 1972, and severe criticisms started
appearing in many journals and newspapers {26}. The main point of
the contentions was on the credibility of the data they used, i.e.,
how a group of only a few scientists could claim that they knew
everything of the world. My thought to the criticisms was then why
not do we take Greyhound Bus Company s motto "Leave the driving to
us," i.e., distributing computer simulation submodels representing
functions and responsibilities of individual sectors and countries,
to appropriate locations where they should have belonged and connect-
ing them via telecommunications. Credible data and model structure
could have been brought by the experts of those sectors and countries
to which no one could complain or blame.

FOOTNOTES BEGIN********************************
{26} Nonetheless, it showed the possibility of computer simulation of
global phenomena for policy analysis, and it was very timely when the
OPEC countries raised the crude oil price several folds and started
the oil and economic crises around the world -- a journal reported
that Yamani, Oil Minster of Saudi Arabia and who studied at the
School of Business Administration at Harvard University, read the
book and urged the OPEC countries to raise the crude oil price. If
true, the small book of the "Limit to Growth" changed the entire
world economy, though people suffered as its consequences, e.g., as
lining up at gas stations, etc.
*********************************FOOTNOTES ENDS
* Takeshi Utsumi, Ph.D. *
* Laureate of Lord Perry Award for Excellence in Distance Education *
* Founder of CAADE *
* (Consortium for Affordable and Accessible Distance Education) *
* President, Global University in the U.S.A. (GU/USA) *
* A Divisional Activity of GLOSAS/USA *
* (GLObal Systems Analysis and Simulation Association in the U.S.A.) *
* 43-23 Colden Street, Flushing, NY 11355-3998, U.S.A. *
* Tel: 718-939-0928; Fax: 718-939-0656 (day time only--prefer email) *
* INTERNET:; Tax Exempt ID: 11-2999676 *
* FTP:// (IP *
* *
* http://www.friends- *
* *

Originally posted at the Website: by Tina Evans Greenwood, Library Instruction Coordinator, Fort Lewis College, Durango, Colorado 81301, e-mail:, and last updated May 7, 1999. By her permission the whole Website has been archived here at the University of Tennessee server directory of GLOSAS Chair Dr. Takeshi Utsumi from August 9, 2000 by Steve McCarty in Japan.