Dr. Minda Sutaria
email@example.com<<February 24, 2000>>Did not work.
Thomas D. Tilson <firstname.lastname@example.org>
Steve McCarty <email@example.com>
Rafael Bozeman Rodriguez, Ph.D. <firstname.lastname@example.org>
(1) Many thanks for your msg (ATTACHMENT I).
Steve found out Dr. Minda Sutaria's organization.
Thanks again for your kind offer of a conference room for our
brainstorming to organize our Tampere event on 7/10-11/95 --
incidentally that was our first occasion to discuss the matter
officially with Tapio and others.
(2) Many, many thanks for your efforts and valuable info on Dr. Minda Sutaria (ATTACHMENT II).
(3) ATTACHMENT III is Dr. Sutaria's article for your reference.
I am very much impressed with it -- maybe a very good person to have in your Manila group.
Your organization is mentioned in the article.
(4) Alas, when I tried e-mailing Dr. Sutaria, it bounced back.
I would greatly appreciate
it if you can kindly visit INNOTECH, describe
our projects and obtain a correct email address me. Their office is in
your same city. Thanks.
Date: Mon, 27 Sep 1999 09:55:41 -0400 (EDT)
Subject: Re: Inexpensive email for remote areas via LEO
Another excellent contact in the Philippines in
Minda Sutaria, head of
SEAMEOI INOTECH in Manila. (I don't have the name of the organization
quite right because its been a while since I've been there. In fact, I'm
not even positive if Minda is still the head. But the organization had an
excellent reputation for work in educational technology.)
Tom Tilson (currently working in Ethiopia)
Date: Mon, 14 Feb 2000 13:41:09 +0900
To: email@example.com, firstname.lastname@example.org
From: Steve McCarty <email@example.com>
Subject: Softbank Emerging Markets for Ghana? / Manila Workshop
The Japanese company Softbank has teamed up with
the World Bank
International Finance Corporation to fund e-commerce start-ups
in 100 developing countries, capitalized at $200 million. They also
plan to offer free or subsidized Internet access to schools. It may
be worth checking this out to see if Ghana may benefit from this.
The following Website has an announcement in English,
Their e-mail is: firstname.lastname@example.org
If I can do anything for you, such as posting
your recent proposals
on the Web, just let me know. Your university just opened your
position around October, so they should give you enough time to
get results in terms of funding and implementation of projects.
Dr. Utsumi, the above may also be of interest for GUS.
BTW, when I learned that people such as Ben Haraguchi
may print out the Manila Mini-Workshop Plan Web page,
I spent some hours reformatting it to require only
about half as many pages. See:
The link "Manila Workshop" at the GUS Asia-Pacific
also leads to the above Manila Mini-Workshop Plan Web page.
Also I ran a Web search Dr. Minda Sutaria again and have found this so far:
Director, South East Asian Ministers of Education
Innovative Technology (INNOTECH)
UP Diliman, Commonwealth Av
Professor, Kagawa Junior College, Japan
President, World Association for Online Education
Website Map: http://www.kagawa-jc.ac.jp/~steve/
In Japanese: http://www.kagawa-jc.ac.jp/~steve_mc/
Excerpt from <http://cleo.murdoch.edu.au/gen/aset/confs/edtech94/rw/sutaria.html>
International cooperation in learning environment technology: Asian perspective
Minda C. Sutaria
Today's world is like a kaleidoscope. It keeps
changing, and it changes so
fast that if we were to take a photograph of it, the picture would change
just as we click our cameras.
Such volatile nature of the world today stems
from the impact of potent
forces of change. Among such forces are rapid developments in science and
technology, new political and economic challenges, environmental problems
and efforts to solve them, the growing trend towards globalisation,
knowledge and population explosion, and the advent of the information age.
In 1903 former American President Theodore Roosevelt
wrote, "The Atlantic
Era is now at the height of its development and must soon exhaust the
resources at its command. The Pacific Era destined to be the greatest of all
is just at its dawn." Today the Asia Pacific Region is popularly referred to
as the region of economic dynamism and potential development. Scenarios for
the third millennium picture it as the next growth area - the emerging "boom" region.
Asia has half of the world's population, and by
the year 2000, it will have
two thirds of it. The dynamism so discernible in this region stems from
several sources, particularly huge gains in material products brought about
by the application of science and technology to its underdeveloped
population and resource base. In the East Asian newly industrialised
countries (NIC) and ASIAN countries, economic development has been fostered
by unprecedented inflows of capital and technology. Several countries, in
the region, however, have yet to achieve political and economic stability
which are among the sine qua non of development.
The Asia Pacific economic thrust is increasingly
being reinforced with a
commitment to education. In this region where economic growth is rapid, the
need for well educated people can never be over emphasised. The enormous
challenges in education, especially in the populous countries, demand that
new approaches for educating millions of students be evolved. As more
countries achieve NIC status, there will be an increasing demand for
education and training that empower all types of learners to cope with rapid
change and other challenges in the information age. As the countries become
more financially stable, they will aspire to create more effective learning
environments for their children, youth and adults - learning environments in
which technology is adopted not as an add on to the curriculum but as a
vital tool for achieving specific learning objectives and for helping
individuals meet their unique learning needs more effectively.
As the demand for relevant education and effective
heightens, new needs will emerge. There will be a need to retain teachers,
school administrators, supervisors and other school personnel on new
technologies, redesign the curricula to integrate appropriate and affordable
technologies, restructure classrooms and school buildings to effectively
accommodate technological innovation and change, renew educational
assessment systems, acquire new software and hardware that can enhance
learning and orient parents on technologies that will become part of their
children's learning environment.
Not all the countries in the Asia Pacific Region
will be able to immediately
afford to embark on the necessary actions intended to improve learning
environments for all types of clientele. Except in the NICs which can well
afford to provide huge outlays for education, there may be sufficient funds
to support all these activities. Countries whose economics are still in the
doldrums will be hard put to provide for them. There may be a dearth of
sufficiently trained experts in educational technology to conduct the needed
retraining, to redesign the curricula, to integrate new technologies, and to
restructure classrooms and school buildings to accommodate technological
innovations initiated. Funds may be inadequate for the purchase of necessary
software and hardware and for training school personnel on their effective use.
Need for international cooperation
If an important thrust in all the countries in
the Asia Pacific Region in
the third millennium is to develop learning environments that will produce
quality educational outputs, then international cooperation will continue to
be a potent key for accelerating the achievement of this end. There will be
a need to build bridges of understanding and concern between developed and
developing countries and even between developing countries in order to
stimulate robust international cooperative linkages and collaboration which
will foster the improvement of learning environment technology.
Experience and research suggest that it is time
to make a paradigm shift in
the modes of international cooperation that will be forged in the future.
UNDP (1994) proposes that the kind of partnership for development that may
be developed among countries be "based not on charity but on mutual
interest, not on confrontation but on cooperation, not on protectionism but
on an equitable sharing of market opportunities, not on stubborn nationalism
but in far sighted internationalism". This persuasion is reflected in a
statement of the president of UNIVERSALIA which evaluated the performance of
SEAMEO regional centres when he responded to a group of beneficiaries of
Canadian assistance who asked if CIDA would provide funds for a possible
third SEAMEO CIDA five year program. He said, "the donor is dead; we only
have partners." He perhaps meant that while there would still be fund
assistance to be made available, mutual interests and benefits between
donors and beneficiaries shall be an important consideration in developing
programs and projects for international cooperation under CIDA, one of
the heaviest supporters of SEAMEO. Institutional linkages and cooperative
and collaborative endeavours exemplify modes of international cooperation
that serve mutual concerns and interests. In such modes of cooperation,
traditional donors and beneficiaries become partners in development. The
flow of benefits would be two way, in contrast to the traditional mode which
is one way.
One popular mode of international cooperation
which can stand reform is
technical assistance. Technical assistance programs are originally aimed to
reduce the technical capability gap between developed countries by
accelerating the transfer of knowledge, skills and experience and
consequently bolstering nation capability building. It has been reported
that while in a few cases it has achieved this, in many others it has
resulted in retarding rather than strengthening national capability.
Common factors in successful technical assistance
programs have been
identified by UNDP (1994). These include (1) harnessing well defined and
established technologies that have neither suffered from changes nor gone
out of fashion, (2) providing adequate time for testing alternative
approaches - for research, for trial and error and for learning by doing (3)
promoting the participation of enough national counterparts and (4) creating
a favourable environment in the receiving country.
One strategy that has been proposed for improving
programs is to give the technical assistance funds directly to the project
implementor to make possible the employment of local experts where available
and international experts where not. The merits of this scheme would be that
it would entail less cost and that the experts would be more attuned to the
Technical assistance could also be improved through
which can fling doors open for new funding sources and encourage self
financing. It is apropos at this juncture to cite the regional cooperation
that has been engendered by the Southeast Asian Ministers of Education
Organisation (SEAMEO) and its 12 regional centres for almost three decades.
One of such centres is SEAMEO INNOTECH, the Regional Centre for Educational
Innovation and Technology in the Philippines which has been actively
involved in programs relevant to the thrust of LETA 1994. It has some
experience worth sharing which exemplifies varied modes of international
cooperation for contributing to the creation of effective learning
environments utilising innovation and technology in Southeast Asia, its main
area of service.
Established in 1969, SEAMEO INNOTECH has been
involved in programs which
largely contribute to improving technology in the learning environment. Its
mission as a regional Centre for Educational Innovation and Technology is to
support SEAMEO's purpose of fostering cooperation among Southeast Asian
nations through education for human resource development. The Centre carries
out this mission by assisting member countries to identify common or unique
educational problems and anticipated needs, and help solve them through
research and development, training approach. It fosters the application of
innovation and appropriate and affordable technology in the solutions to
SEAMEO is a regional organisation composed of
nine member countries, namely,
Brunei Darussalam, Cambodia, Indonesia, Lao PDR, Malaysia, Philippines,
Singapore, Thailand and Viet Nam. It has six associate member countries
which include Australia, Canada, France, Germany, Netherlands and New
Zealand. Its executive arm is its Secretariat (SEAMES) based in Bangkok,
Thailand and its policy making body is composed of the ministers of
education of the member countries (SEAMEO). The member countries annually
contribute funds for the centres' and SEAMES' operations and programs in
accordance with a contribution index based on their ability to pay as gauged
from their economic status. The associate countries and other donor
countries and international organisations have been contributing significant
amounts to support the programs, projects and activities of the secretariat
and the centres. The heaviest contributors to SEAMEO are Australia, Canada
Japan, The Netherlands and the USA.
Modes of international cooperation
Training is a major program of SEAMEO INNOTECH.
It has trained close to 4000
key educators during its twenty-five year existence. As a centre for
educational innovation and technology, most of its courses have relevance to
learning environment technology. In keeping with the theme of its Fourth
Five Year Development Plan - "Towards Greater Learning Effectiveness for
All" - its present training courses promote new information technologies and
telecommunications in the learning environment and delve into the management
of learning environments in which technology is a significant factor. One
course is mounted recently - Creating Effective Learning Environments - in
which six member countries participated, covered various concerns in
learning environment technology.
International cooperation - particularly through
technical assistance and
scholarship grants, made the new course possible. A Canadian expert funded
by the Canadian International Development Authority (CIDA) facilitated the
course in collaboration with centre staff and conducted informal academic
sharing sessions with them as instructional capability building measures.
The effective use of appropriate technology in creating learning
environments was not only espoused but demonstrated in the conduct of the
course as well. Today the course is conducted sans foreign technical
assistance with scholarship grants from regular and associate member
countries. Scholarship grants from donor countries and agencies are,
however, decreasing so the Centre is exploring new modes of international
cooperation for supporting its training programs.
One such mode of international cooperation was
recently tried out only last
month. A two week course organised for 26 Thai key educators was totally
funded by the Thai government and cooperatively planned by the Thai Ministry
of Education and SEAMEO INNOTECH. The first week of the training was
conducted in Thailand and the second week in SEAMEO INNOTECH. The evaluative
feedback from the participants was quite encouraging, so that now we promote
the modality as one of the alternatives for conducting training to meet
specific country training needs. One of its merits is that it fosters
healthy relationships between the centre and the countries, particularly the
ministries of education served and enhances the relevance of the training course.
One technology that SEAMEO INNOTECH employs today
cooperation made possible is computer conferencing which has proven to be a
viable alternative especially when it is not financially possible to bring
in foreign experts. The centre's two and three month courses now usually
culminate in a one hour computer conference with experts in the USA and
Canada. The technical assistance component of its Five Year CIDA Project in
the Development of Institutional Capacity made it possible for the Centre to
leap frog into such leading edge technology. To insure these sustainability
of the technology, three staff members worked closely with a Canadian expert
in setting up its local and wide area networks and had a brief follow up
training with him in Canada. Now, consultation with him is done via Email
whenever some problems arise in the Centre's network system. This close
relationship developed between the expert and the staff serves as insurance
for the sustainability of the Centre's capability for computer conferencing.
The brief consultancy program of the expert with SEAMEO INNOTECH has in turn
provided him opportunities for sharing his expertise and networking with
other institutions in the country. A two way flow of benefits between the
donor country and beneficiaries has, thus, become possible. This is the
desideratum in international cooperation.
Australia, one of the earliest associate members
of SEAMEO, has been a
staunch supporter of SEAMEO INNOTECH's programs for development, largely in
the area of learning environment technology. Under its international
cooperation program managed by the Australian International Development
Assistance Bureau (AIDAB), SEAMEO INNOTECH has been able to access
Australian technical expertise and staff training. From 1974 to the present,
it has contributed US$2,119,469 for the Centre's staff training in
Australia, training scholarships for SEAMEO member countries and technical
assistance in various areas that relate to learning environment technology.
The Centre's computerised library and its capability in computer and video
technology development of instructional modules, and handling its various
courses can be attributed in a large measure to the programs of assistance
provided by AIDAB. Several senior professional and technical staff of the
Centre have had training in various institutions in Australia and have
continued to enhance their training, research, information management and
technological capabilities through their interaction with the various
experts AIDAB fielded to the Centre.
>From 1982 to 1992, Australian assistance to the
Centre through triennium
grants provided much needed human and capital resources for institutional
capability building to prepare it to meet the various needs of its
clientele. The termination of such triennium grants propelled the Centre to
seek new modes of cooperation in order to continue its salutary
relationships with the Australian experts that had served it for sometime.
Thus, began the effort to develop institutional linkages with institutions
to which these experts belong.
Through the efforts of one such expert, who in
the past years regularly came
to SEAMEO INNOTECH to conduct a course cooperatively with the training
staff, an institutional linkage was developed with the Torrens Valley
Institute and is intended to be a mutually strengthening relationship. A
memorandum of understanding was signed by the heads of both institutions and
soon after, the first cooperative activity was planned. In a few months and
expert will facilitate a course of individualised modularised instruction
for Southeast Asian key educators some of whom will be on training
scholarships funded by donor countries and agencies and most of whom will be
fee paying participants. Torrens Valley Institute will provide the expert
while the Centre will provide his accommodation and out of pocket expenses
and recruit fee paying participants. This is a departure from the usual mode
of international cooperation in which the expert and the training
scholarships are funded by one or more donor countries or agencies.
There are other permutations of international
cooperation that emanate from
lasting relationships between institutions and people which merit mention.
One such mode is exemplified in a training course that will be mounted in
the Centre in October. The former dean of the University of South Carolina
with which SEAMEO INNOTECH is linked under a memorandum of agreement, has
offered to handle this special course. He has offered his service free and
will pay for his air fare. SEAMEO INNOTECH will provide his accommodation
and recruit fee paying participants since no scholarship grants are
available for it. Such altruistic individuals are perhaps rare, but they
will emerge especially where they see how well their services can further
enhance the capability of an institution whose staff is cordial and
hospitable to foreign technical expertise.
The United States was instrumental in giving the
Centre much needed
technical and material support through its International Cooperation
Administration during its early years, specifically from 1973 to 1984. It
plowed in US$3,989,725 in terms of training grants, technical assistance,
equipment and research grants during the Centre's first decade of existence.
Its experts helped the staff define the direction of its programs and
provided assistance in developing its first five year plan and in designing
its programs. The scheme of US assistance to the Centre was to infuse
massive aid during the first decade of its existence, help develop its
competence and pull out as soon as it could fairly well operate to fulfil
its mission. Indeed, such aid helped immensely in institutional building
which insured the sustainability of the changes and developments the experts
initiated with the staff.
Almost nine years after American aid was cut off,
a new mode of
international cooperation with USAID was evolved. A collaborative project
was initiated with LEARN TECH under the Education Development Centre with
funding support from USAID. The project - VIDEO TECH - is intended to
develop a new approach to using video as a teacher training strategy. It
involves the development of a training package composed of a trainer's
manual and two videos, one on questioning techniques and the other on
responding techniques. Two experts, one from the Educational Development
Centre and the other from the Ohio State University, came to the Centre to
collaborate in planning for the production of the video tapes and the
manual. The Centre executed the plan and the experts reviewed the products.
The training package has been field tested and evaluated and is now ready
for marketing. Meanwhile, it is being adapted for Thai use by the
Chulalongkorn University of Thailand. The resources given by USAID for the
project have not only produced, under a collaborative arrangement, a useful
teacher training package, but have also provided opportunities for
networking with other countries. Part of the Centre's plan is to get other
countries to prepare adaptations of the training package.
Japan has provided the most extensive assistance
to SEAMEO INNOTECH. From
1980 to the present, it has invested US$4,632,624 in terms of
infrastructure, development and technical assistance. It has not only
provided funds for constructing a permanent edifice for the Centre but also
provided technological hardware and technical expertise which have
considerably increased its capability to meet member country training needs
in the realm of educational technology. Japanese technical assistance has
been provided the Centre annually through the Japanese International
Cooperation Agency (JICA). Experts come annually for a period of one month
and bring to the Centre some light equipment from JICA, upgrade the staff's
competence in technology as well as handle training courses. As in other
international cooperation agreements, the objective of the technical and
equipment assistance in institutional capability building.
Development assistance from the Netherlands has
provided an opportunity for
SEAMEO INNOTECH to forge a strong linkage with a research organisation in
the Hague, the Centre collaborated in producing and printing a report on one
of its projects funded by the Netherlands. CESO and the Centre have recently
collaborated in the development of a project proposal and are seeking funds
for it. Theirs is a dynamic relationship that has produced mutual benefits
for both institutions.
One traditional mode of international cooperation
from which SEAMEO INNOTECH
has derived much benefit is provision of research grants by donor countries
and agencies. In the eighties, the research grants it secured allowed it to
involve three of more member countries in a research and development
project. This provided a golden opportunity for networking and developing
healthy working relationships with the ministries of education of the member
countries. Today the grant packages are smaller and have constrained the
Centre to make a paradigm shift in its scheme of involving several member
countries in research projects. The research and development projects of the
Centre received much of their support from IDRC, AIDAB, CIDA, USAID, the
Netherlands, UNDP, UNICEF and UNESCO. The common concern of these funding
agencies and donor countries for greater utilisation of research outputs has
propelled the Centre to improve its dissemination strategies.
The new paradigm for international cooperation
must embrace all
international flows, not just aid, and must provide rich opportunities for
networking and developing linkages and partnership.
One mode of international cooperation that the
Centre has been nurturing to
perfection is holding international conference on themes of current interest
and significance. Its conference held last February 1994 provided a forum
for sharing views and experiences on the theme "Learning Technologies for
All: Today and Tomorrow." Largely dependent on conference fees for support,
it brought together notable personages and seasoned educators from 38
countries and 15 international organisations from all over the world. It
provided wealth of opportunities for the Centre to develop and strengthen
institutional linkages and to enhance its visibility and its institutional
capability. Some spin offs of the conference are the Centre's mounting a
course on multimedia software production in response to the requests of some
participants, several speaking and consultancy invitations from abroad that
its director and senior staff received and broadening of its networks to
include both foreign and local institutions whose objectives are congruent
with the Centre's.
Value of capability building
International cooperation programs in the main
provide investments in human
development. If such investment and the changes of innovations introduced
are to be sustainable, as much attention must be paid to building
institutional capability as well as to the transfer of resources. In fact
the effectiveness of the transfer of resources hinges on the development of
institutional capability. An institution that has been successful in
building its capability can increasingly shift responsibility for the
preparation, appraisal and supervision of specific investment to the
recipients thus creating favourable conditions for deepening commitment and
for broadening "ownership" of the externally assisted process of change or innovation.
To be effective, capability building must consider
how the target
organisation operates and how information flows within it. It must also take
into account its staffing policies and career incentives that influence the
quality of staff performance, the decision making structure and process and
the motivational culture of the organisation.
The Asia Pacific Region today is in a state of
accelerating change. Its
countries are unevenly coping with such change, with the NICs taking larger
strides than countries which have yet to attain political and economic
stability. The region has still a lot of catching up to do with the
developed countries in the realm of learning environment technology. This
provides the raison d'etre for continuing international cooperation in this area.
Future international cooperation programs on learning
would do well to address the learning needs of people with disabilities and
impairments, to emphasise the benefits that flow from inter-and
intra-country sharing of information, ideas and experience and to make those
involved in international cooperation projects perceive the value of ongoing
research and communication in sustaining change and innovation.
The vision of effective learning environments
through harnessing appropriate
technology in the twenty-first century will swiftly evaporate if these
concerns are ignored. It will disappear even more speedily if we forget that
international cooperation programs must foster institutional and national
1. Chan, Gerald. Asia Pacific Cooperation
from an International
Organisation Prospective. Chinese University of Hong Kong, 34pp.
2. Herold, Peter, Qutub U Khan and Hans
Reiff (1983). International
Cooperation in Education in Countries of Asia and the Pacific:
Objectives. Statistical Trends and Prospects. UNESCO, Paris. 51 pp.
3. Organisation for Economic Cooperation
and Development (1992).
Development Cooperation. Paris pp. 54-73.
4. Soon, Lau Teik and Leo Suryadinata (1988).
Moving. into the Pacific
Century: The Changing Regional Order in the Asia Pacific. Singapore:
Heinemann. pp. 9-23.
5. UNDP (1994). Human Development Report
1994. UNDP. Delhi. Oxford
University Press, pp. 61-89.
1. UNDP, Human Development Report 1994. Oxford University Press, p.61.
2. SEAMEO - Southeast Asian Ministers of Education Organisation.
3. CIDA - Canadian International Development Agency.
4. Op.cit. pp. 79-80.
5. SEAMEC - Southeast Asian Ministers of Education Council.
Please cite as: Sutaria,
M. C. (1994). International cooperation
in learning environment technology: Asian perspective. In J.
Steele and J. G. Hedberg (eds), Learning Environment Technology:
Selected papers from LETA 94, 338-343. Canberra: AJET
[ EdTech'94 contents ] [ EdTech Confs ] [ ASET home ]
This URL: http://cleo.murdoch.edu.au/aset/confs/edtech94/rw/sutaria.html
Created 26 Mar 99. Last update: 26 Mar 99. HTML editor: Roger Atkinson
List of Distribution
Dr. Minda Sutaria
South East Asian Ministers of Education Organization (SEAMEO)
Innovative Technology (INNOTECH)
UP Diliman, Commonwealth Ave
email@example.com<<February 24, 2000>>Did not work.
Thomas D. Tilson
Learning Technologies and COmmunication
Academy for Educational Development
1875 Connecticut Ave. NW
Washington, DC 20009
202-884-8000 (main #)
Professor, Kagawa Junior College
President, World Association for Online Education (WAOE)
3717-33 Nii Kokubunji, Kagawa 769-0101 JAPAN
+81-877-49-8041 (office, direct line); Fax: +81-877-49-5252
firstname.lastname@example.org, email@example.com, firstname.lastname@example.org (web mail)
Website Map: http://www.kagawa-jc.ac.jp/~steve/
Home page in Japanese / English / WAOE organization
Online library in Japanese / English (Asian Studies WWW Virtual Library 4-star site)
Fundamental Projects of Dr. Takeshi Utsumi (English and Japanese)
Global University System Asia-Pacific Framework
Rafael Bozeman Rodriguez, Ph.D.
#7 Visayas Avenue, VASRA
1128 Quezon City, Philippines
* Takeshi Utsumi, Ph.D., P.E., Chairman, GLOSAS/USA *
* (GLObal Systems Analysis and Simulation Association in the U.S.A.) *
* Laureate of Lord Perry Award for Excellence in Distance Education *
* Founder of CAADE *
* (Consortium for Affordable and Accessible Distance Education) *
* President Emeritus and V.P. for Technology and Coordination of *
* Global University System (GUS) *
* 43-23 Colden Street, Flushing, NY 11355-3998, U.S.A. *
* Tel: 718-939-0928; Fax: 718-939-0656 (day time only--prefer email) *
* Email: email@example.com; Tax Exempt ID: 11-2999676 *
* http://www.friends-partners.org/GLOSAS/ *
Return to: Global University System
Early 2000 Correspondence
Web page by Steve McCarty, World Association for Online Education President