<<April 23, 2000>>

Peter T. Knight <ptknight@attglobal.net>

Dr. Joseph N. Pelton <ecjpelton@aol.com>

Dr. David A. Johnson <daj@utk.edu>

Dear Peter:

(1)  Congratulations to your excellent final report on
      Lessons_from_infoDev_Projects" (ATTACHMENT I).

(2)  I sincerely thank you for your kind words for our Tampere event and high
     appraisal of our Global Service Trust Fund (GSTF) project.

(3)  The GSTF project has now been adopted by Joe Pelton's newly established
     [Arthur C.] Clarke Institute for Telecommunication and Information
     (CITI), as one of their four major projects -- thanks to your effort.

     As soon as you come back from Brazil on June 16th, I would like to have
     a mtg with you, Joe, and David to discuss the next step of its development.

Dear Electronic Colleagues:

(4)  You can read its full report and the linked subjects, if you visit his
     web site at: <http://www.knight-moore.com/pubs/Lessons_from_infoDev_Projects.html>.

Best, Tak
                          ATTACHMENT I

Date: Sun, 23 Apr 2000 08:08:59 -0300
From: PTKnight <ptknight@attglobal.net>
To: Denis Brandjes <denis@schoolnet.org.za>,
Neil Butcher <neilshel@icon.co.za>,
Phil Christensen <phil@cyberschool.co.za>,
"Michael G. Moore" <mgmoore@psu.edu>,
Annette de Jager <adejager@onwe.co.za>,
Vis Naidoo <naidoo.v@educ.pwv.gov.za>,
Brenda Page <pak04477@pixie.co.za>,
Effat El Shooky <eshooky@ritsec1.com.eg>,
"Takeshi Utsumi, Ph.D." <utsumi@columbia.edu>,
Bob Day <Dayrs@unisa.ac.za>,
David Berk  <dberk@worldbank.org>,
Claire Brown <cbrown@m-edu.co.za>,
"Magdallen N. Juma" <mjuma@nbnet.co.ke>,
"Phinias M. Makhurane" <makhurane@acacia.samara.co.zw>
Subject: Lessons_from_infoDev_Projects

Many thanks for your comments during the drafting process for this paper. It
is now complete. You can access on the web (cover page, table of contents,
about the author, summary attached -- to main report and annex on project data
click where indicated.

Further comments always welcome. I understand that infoDev will be
establishing a forum to discuss the paper.

With best regards,

Peter T. Knight
Knight-Moore - Telematics for Education and Development
Communications Development Incorporated (CDI)
1808 I Street, NW, 7th Floor
Washington, DC 20006, USA

Rio Office
Avenida Atlantica 4002/501
22070-002 Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brasil

Tel/Fax: 55-21-522-7068 Call first to fax
Cellular: 55-21-9752-5972
ptknight@attglobal.net; peter@knight-moore.com

            Lessons from infoDev Education Projects

                        Peter T. Knight*

   Knight-Moore Telematics for Education and Development/CDI


                         14 April 2000

                        Comments welcome


This report was prepared based on infoDev project reports, project websites,
e-mail correspondence and interviews with project Task Managers, project
coordinators, and project participants. Therefore thanks is due to many
different people, some of them unknown to me. However I acknowledge particular
direct help from via email correspondence and/or documents provided by Dennis
Brandjes, Neil Butcher, Phil Christensen, John Daly, Rafael Hernandez, Annette
de Jager, Luiz Antonio Joia, Insung Jung, Michael G. Moore, Vis Naidoo, Brenda
Page, Effat El Shooky, Rael Shrand, Ntutule Tshenye, Brenda Page, Takeshi
Utsumi, and Claudia Zea. Useful comments via interviews were received from Bob
Day, David Berk, Claire Brown, Joanne Capper, Tim Carrington, Magdallen Juma,
Phinias Makhurane, Peter Materu, Kenoko Osseni Bagnan, and William Saint. Not
withstanding the assistance received, I am responsible for the contents of the
present paper, not infoDev, the World Bank, or any of the individuals named above.


About the Author

Executive Summary

                          Main Report



     ICTs and Education: the Potential Developing Country Leapfrogging in
     the Global Knowledge-based Economy

     Geographic Scope

     Subject Matter

Lessons from Individual Projects

     Worldwide: Emerging Global Electronic Distance Education: An Interactive Workshop

     Worldwide: Networking for Innovation in Technology and Teacher Training

     Arab Region: Regional Distance Learning Network "LearnNet"

     Sub-Saharan Africa: African Virtual University

     South Africa: Telematics for African Development

     South Africa: Cyberschool Africa

     Colombia: Proyecto  Conexiones

     Jamaica: Partnership for Technology in Basic Education

Conclusions and Recommendations

     Recommendations for the global development community

     Recommendations for infoDev Management

Annex: Project Data

                        About the Author

Peter T. Knight is Partner of Knight-Moore Telematics for Education and
Development, a virtual firm operating within the corporate framework of
Communications Development Incorporated (CDI), a print and electronic editing
and publishing company of which he is a shareholder. He holds a Ph.D in
economics from Stanford University, and worked at the Brookings Institution,
the Ford Foundation, and Cornell University before joining the World Bank in
1976. Before graduating from the World Bank to the private sector in 1997, he
held a variety of positions including membership in the team producing the
World Development Report 1980, Lead Economist in the Brazil Department,
Division Chief of the National Economic Management Division of the Economic
Development Institute (predecessor to the World Bank Institute), and Chief of
the Electronic Media Center. In this last position prior to his graduation, he
participated in the establishment of the Information for Development Program
(infoDev) and was task manager for two of its first eight projects (Telematics
for African Development Consortium and Toward an Open, Informed Telematics
Policy Debate in Russia). As Chief of the Electronic Media Center, a small
catalytic unit promoting the use of electronic technologies to conduct the
Bank's business, he became increasingly convinced that distance learning
making use of the Internet and other electronic technologies is the "killer
application" of the twenty first century and the single most strategic area
for economic and social development. He brought his current Partner, Professor
Michael G. Moore of Pennsylvania State University to work on a variety of
distance education projects for the Bank, and in April 1997 they established
Knight-Moore. A complete ręsumę and full curriculum vitae may be found in the
Partners section of the Knight-Moore website, and information on projects
undertaken in the Projects section. Peter has continued to work on infoDev
projects, and was Task Manager for the CyberSchool Africa project as well as
author of the present report.

                      Executive Summary

This report reviews eight infoDev projects in the field of education, seven of
which have been completed, and one still in execution. These projects used
US$1.9 million of infoDev resources and mobilized an additional US$3.4 million
>from other sources, for a total project value of US$5.5 million. These
education projects accounted for xx percent of total infoDev grants during the
years 1996-1999. The study was conducted entirely through the review of
documents, website visits, e-mail correspondence, and interviews conducted
either in Washington or by telephone. No field research was undertaken given
budgetary constraints, though the author was familiar with some of the
projects through previous travel to Brazil, Egypt, and South Africa.

infoDev's staff, sponsors, supporters, and grantees believe that
technology-enhanced education offers the single best potential for dealing with the
emerging global digital divide which would otherwise tend to aggravate already
unconscionable differences in well-being, income, and wealth between rich and
poor countries and individuals. But have infoDev-supported projects helped to
demonstrate this? We began with a set of important questions regarding how
lessons from these eight projects might provide guidance for international
organizations, bilateral development agencies, foundations, private sector
investors, developing country governments and infoDev's own management as it
plans its work program for the coming years. We sought lessons to help all
these organizations address the global digital divide and its implications for
access to the knowledge needed for the information and knowledge poor to catch
up with the information and knowledge rich in an increasingly competitive,
increasingly knowledge-based, globalizing economy. It is perhaps pretentious
to draw major lessons for such important audiences from so few projects,
involving InfoDev grants totaling less than US$2 million. But we shall try,
couching the lessons in the form of recommendations.

Recommendations for the global development community

     1.   A Global Service Trust Fund to provide access to broad bandwidth
          for education and health projects in developing countries meeting
          certain policy conditions is a proposal worthy of support by the
          international development community, and beyond the scope of
          InfoDev's current resources, though InfoDev's experience as a
          multi-donor grant-making organization operating within the World
          Bank Group might be useful for administering such a Fund, whether
          or not the World Bank Group is chosen as the Fund's administrator.

     2.   The cost of dialup telephone connections to the Internet,
          especially where "metered" time-based tariff systems exist, is a
          major deterrent to its use for education and training. Competition
          and flat rate tariff systems are the best ways to reduce this
          cost. The international development community should finance
          studies to verify and support this finding and seek its implementation.

     3.   There is high unmet demand for quality distance education even in
          Africa and the Arab countries. This finding can probably be
          generalized to all developing countries, suggesting that there are
          potentially profitable returns to be earned by serving these
          markets. What is needed are new international and developing
          country venture capital funds to invest in these profitable
          ventures and to help them grow to the point where they can attract
          more conventional kinds of equity and loan capital. Like broad
          bandwidth infrastructure, such funds are beyond the reach of
          infoDev's financial and management capacity.

     4.   Introducing computers into schools, whether networked or not,
          requires important investments in organization, strategy
          development, training of teachers, and leadership sensitive to
          teacher, student, and community interests to succeed in realizing
          the pedagogical benefits expected. These findings should be given
          broad dissemination and used to shape new computers in schools
          projects funded by the international development community.

     5.   Face-to-face and synchronous electronic communication can greatly
          enhance the productivity of cheaper asynchronous electronic
          communication, hence there is still an important role for
          international conferences, workshops, and videoconferencing in a
          networked, wired (or wireless) world. Selective support for such
          conferences should be continued, but conditioned on extensive
          preparation and follow-up using asynchronous electronic means to
          maximize the impact of expensive face-to-face and synchronous
          electronic conferences.

Recommendations for infoDev Management

     1.   infoDev funding can play an important catalytic role in mobilizing
          other funding and in general facilitating successful execution of
          a project because it increases the credibility of the project in
          the eyes of other sources of project finance. Thus, despite its
          relatively small financial capacity, infoDev should continue its
          work, and make greater use of both the print and electronic media
          to publicize its projects. It should also establish close
          connections to international sources of venture capital such as
          SoftBank Emerging Markets to provide second-stage funding for
          projects that are intended to be profit making businesses.

     2.   infoDev should increase the proportion of its total portfolio
          devoted to education projects, given the central role of education
          and training in the increasing knowledge-based and global economy.
          But to leverage this increased investment, a greater portion
          should be invested in projects involving policy formulation and
          research, and both should include built-in evaluation and
          dissemination components.

     3.   infoDev management should reduce the time taken for project
          approval and lighten the requirements regarding infoDev ownership
          of intellectual property.

     4.   infoDev should make sure that future grants contain provisions for
          market analysis (whether or not the project is in the private
          sector), feedback and evaluation built into the projects, and also
          set aside funding for independent on-site evaluations of at least
          a sample of projects.

     5.   infoDev should consider being more cautious in providing funding
          to large bureaucratic organizations and seek additional ways to
          support relatively small, agile, networked organizations and even
          individuals with proven records of innovation.

Body of the report

Annex - Project Data
                      List of Distribution

Peter T. Knight
Knight, Moore - Telematics for Education and Development
Communications Development Incorporated (CDI)
Strategy, Policy, Design, Implementation, Evaluation
1808 I Street, NW, 7th Floor
Washington, DC 20006, USA
Tel: 1-202-775-2132 (secretary), 1-202-721-0348 (direct)
Fax: 1-202-775-2135 (office), 1-202-362-8482 (home)
webmail: ptknight@netscape.net
IP for CU-SeeMe:
http://www.knight-moore.com/projects/GSTF.html -- about GSTF

Dr. Joseph N. Pelton
Senior Research Scientist
Institute for Applied Space Research, Rm 340
George Washington University
2033 K Street, N.W.
Washington, D.C. 20052
Fax: 202-994-5505
Acting Executive Director of CITI
Vice-Chair of the Arthur C. Clarke Foundation of the U.S. (ACCFUS)
Arthur C. Clark Institute for Telecommunication and Information (CITI)
4025 40th Street North
Arlington, VA 22207
(703) 536-6985

Dr. David A. Johnson, AICP
Board member of GLOSAS/USA
Former President of Fulbright Association
Professor Emeritus, School of Planning
College of Arts and Sciences
University of Tennessee
108-I Hoskins Library
Knoxville, TN 37996-4015
Tel: +1-423-974 5227
Fax: +1-423-974 5229
* Takeshi Utsumi, Ph.D., P.E., Chairman, GLOSAS/USA                  *
* (GLObal Systems Analysis and Simulation Association in the U.S.A.) *
* Laureate of Lord Perry Award for Excellence in Distance Education  *
* Founder of CAADE                                                   *
* (Consortium for Affordable and Accessible Distance Education)      *
* President Emeritus and V.P. for Technology and Coordination of     *
*   Global University System (GUS)                                   *
* 43-23 Colden Street, Flushing, NY 11355-3998, U.S.A.               *
* Tel: 718-939-0928; Fax: 718-939-0656 (day time only--prefer email) *
* Email: utsumi@columbia.edu;  Tax Exempt ID: 11-2999676             *
* http://www.friends-partners.org/GLOSAS/                            *
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