<<May 15, 2000>>

Alexandre Rivas, Ph.D. <alex_mau@argo.com.br>

Steve McCarty <steve@kagawa-jc.ac.jp>

Dear Alex:

(1)  ATTACHMENT I is my paper for your workshop.

(2)  I am sending you its hard copy by airmail.

     Pls make enough copies and distribute to attendees.

(3)  It is also available at


Dear Electronic Colleagues:

(4)  Pls feel free to utilize any parts of this paper -- with appropriate credit.

(5)  Welcome any suggestions/comments.

Dear Steve:

(6)  A Japanese article at <http://www.nikkei.co.jp/> yesterday reported that
     the Prime Minister Mr. Mori said that the educational system of the
     Internet age must be configured and constructed by the people of the world.

(7)  My paper below may respond to his statement.

Best, Tak
                          ATTACHMENT I

              Global University System

                    Paper to be presented at the
                     International Workshop on
               Technology and Distance Education for
            Sustainable Development of the Amazonia
                      Manaus - AM - Brazil
                  May 31, June 1 and 2, 2000

                           May 14, 2000

                   Takeshi Utsumi, Ph.D., P.E.
                  Founder, President Emeritus
         Vice President for Technology and Coordination
                 Global University System (GUS)
Chairman, GLObal Systems Analysis and Simulation Association in the U.S.A. (GLOSAS/USA)
                      43-23 Colden Street
                Flushing, NY 11355-3998, U.S.A.
                       Tel: 718-939-0928
                       Fax: 718-939-0656


1.   Introduction
2.   History

  2.2  Deregulation Effort
  2.3  Global Lecture Hall (GLH)" Videoconferences
  2.4  Tampere Event
     2.4.1 Goals and Objectives
     2.4.2 Establishment of Global University System (GUS)
     2.4.3 Discussions on Global Broadband Internet
     2.4.4 Discussions on Global Service Trust Fund (GSTF)

3.   Philosophies and Principles of GUS

  3.1  Transcultural, globalwide initiative
  3.2  The GUS to demonstrate moral leadership
  3.3  Priority on academic freedom
  3.4  The GUS to stress quality education
  3.5  Initiative to be shared with students
  3.6  Transnational collaboration on research
  3.7  Commitment to openness
  3.8  Toward transcultural unity-in-difference

4.   Mission of GUS
5.   Goals of GUS
6.   Objective of GUS
7.   Structures of GUS

  7.1  Proposed Administrative Centers and Satellite Hubs in Developed Countries
  7.2  Proposed Administrative Centers and Satellite Hubs in Each Region of Developing Countries
  7.3  Regional Satellite Hubs and Infrastructures
  7.4  Administrative Centers

8.   Global Broadband Internet
9.   Global Service Trust Fund (GSTF)

  9.1  Objective
  9.2  Finance and Organization
  9.3  Clarke Institute of Telecommunications and Information (CITI)
  9.4  Next Steps & Recommendations of the GSTF Working Group

10.  Next Steps with GUS Regional Activities
11.  Conclusions

Reference web sites:

  The dawn of the twenty-first century comes with digital revolution and
economic globalization with New Economy.  We are moving towards a global
knowledge society where information, skills and competencies become the
driving forces of social and economic development.  It is this confluence of
social, economic, and technological forces that create both opportunities and
challenges for global society as a whole.  The challenges associated with this
transformation can no longer be solved with traditional educational paradigms.
Old bag does no longer work for new wine.

  The Internet will be the main telecommunication media of tomorrow, as
rapidly creating new opportunities for establishing international distance
learning and global healthcare/telemedicine programs.  In this age, effective
learning requires upgraded multimedia educational materials that can best be
distributed using broadband Internet applications.  Although the opportunities
for international distance learning are great and with creativity flowering
almost everywhere the Internet reaches, the global digital divide is also
becoming a new dividing line between connectivity haves and connectivity
have-nots.  The use of global distance learning and telemedicine must be
efficient and cost-effective, enabling educational institutions that will
allow us to foster global citizenship and achieve "education and healthcare
for all" at anytime and anywhere.

  We hold a highly successful International Workshop and Conference on
"Emerging Global Electronic Distance Learning (EGEDL/'99)" in August, 1999 at
the University of Tampere in Finland, and discussed with delegates from 14
nations on practical ways to harness the emerging technological evolution in
the major regions of the globe to provide affordable, global distance learning
across national and cultural boundaries.  We formed a Global University System
(GUS) with group activities in the regions of the Asia/Pacific, North, Central
and South Americas, Europe and Africa to establish distance learning pilot
projects.  Each of those regional groups are now planning to formalize the
pilot projects which will foster the establishment of GUS in their respective
regions with the use of advanced global broadband wireless and satellite
Internet which is to be financed by the Global Service Trust Fund (GSTF).
1.   Introduction

  The digital revolution and economic globalization are taking us into a new
era.  We are moving towards a global knowledge society where information,
skills and competencies become the driving forces of social and economic
development.  It is this confluence of social, economic, and technological
forces that create both opportunities and challenges for society as a whole.
The challenges associated with this transformation can no longer be solved
with traditional educational paradigms.  The Internet, with its rapidly
expanding and improving infrastructure, will be the main telecommunication
media of tomorrow.  It has been extended to most countries, albeit with slow-
to-medium speed.  The advancement of videoconferencing, telephony, broadband
Internet, World Wide Web, and other communication and information technologies
is rapidly creating new opportunities for establishing international distance
learning and global healthcare/telemedicine programs.  In this age, effective
learning requires upgraded multimedia educational materials that can best be
distributed using broadband Internet applications.  The use of these
applications for global distance learning and telemedicine must be efficient
and cost-effective, enabling educational institutions that will allow us to
foster global citizenship and achieve "education and healthcare for all" at
anytime and anywhere.

  Research and deployment of a broadband Internet backbone such as vBNS and
Abeline are expanding high-speed Internet access to higher education and
healthcare institutions throughout the United States and beyond.  This
technology provides increased band-width to university researchers requiring
the ability to manipulate large quantities of data and graphic images, as well
as simultaneous audio, video, and data transmission for high-quality
telemedicine applications.  In addition, this technology holds great promise
for improving multimedia distance learning capability, especially in rural and
isolated areas in many developing countries that are not well served by
commercial network providers.  The enhanced distance learning capabilities of
broadband Internet are only beginning to be explored and offer an immediate
benefit to the populations served by these networks.

  In spite of its exciting promise and economical advantage, distance
education technology has difficulty reaching those who need it most,
particularly in rural area of the U.S. and in less developed countries.
Although the opportunities for international distance learning are great,
challenges to effectively utilizing this opportunity include technical and
administrative infrastructure problems, language barriers, cultural
differences, political unrest, costs, skills, and appropriate matches between
needs and educational resources, and lack of collaborative partners for
establishing successful pilot programs.  With creativity flowering almost
everywhere the Internet reaches, the global digital divide is also becoming a
new dividing line between connectivity haves and connectivity have-nots.
Those with access to Internet connectivity have access to a growing portion of
humanity's knowledge base.  Those without access are condemned to fall further
behind in the increasingly knowledge-based global economy.

  The Global University System (GUS) (TM) seeks to establish distance
learning pilot projects using broadband Internet technology that can be
disseminated as "best practices" examples for the further development and
deployment of effective international distance learning partnerships in order
to enhance the teaching/learning capabilities.

2.   History


  The GLObal Systems Analysis and Simulation Association in the U.S.A.
(GLOSAS/USA) is a publicly supported, non-profit, educational service
organization and is a consortium of organizations dedicated to the use of
evolving telecommunications and information technologies to further advance
world peace through global communications.  GLOSAS fosters science and
technology based economic development to improve the quality of life.

  2.2 Deregulation Effort

  Over the past quarter century GLOSAS/USA played a major pioneering role in
extending U.S. data communication networks to other countries and deregulating
Japanese telecommunication policies for the use of e-mail (thanks to a help
>from the Late Commerce Secretary Malcom Baldridge).  This triggered the de-
monopolization and privatization of Japanese telecommunications industries.
This movement has later been emulated in many other countries (now over 300
million e-mail users around the world).  This effort was to establish later a
Globally Collaborative Environmental Peace Gaming with globally distributed
computer simulation system through global neural computer network (a term
coined by Utsumi in 1981 and used by Vice President Al Gore in his speech).
His effort helped extending American and other countries' university courses
to under-served developing countries and the conduct of innovative distance
teaching trials with "Global Lecture Hall (GLH)" videoconferences using hybrid
delivery technologies.

  2.3 "Global Lecture Hall (GLH)" Videoconferences

  During the second decade of GLOSAS activities from 1986, Utsumi realized
that text-oriented e-mail was not enough for distance learning, especially in
engineering and medical education which requires graphics, images and full-
color, full-motion video.  He then organized and conducted a series of
videoconferences what came to be called the "Global Lecture Hall (GLH)" (TM).
It originated at university campuses in the U.S., Italy, Brazil and Hungary,
and spanned the globe.  It employed inexpensive media accessible to less
developed countries.  This type of event was characterized by the involvement
of participants at many sites, using several media to facilitate interactions
among them.  Participants in several countries could hear, talk, and see each
other while using affordable methods for developing countries.  Our GLH has
now been well established as an annual event.

  2.4 Tampere Event

  We hold a highly successful International Workshop and Conference on
"Emerging Global Electronic Distance Learning (EGEDL/'99)" from August 9th to
13th, 1999 at the University of Tampere in Finland -- see
<http://www.uta.fi/EGEDL> for the compilation of the conference materials.
This EGEDL was thanks to generous support by Alprint, the British Council,
Finnair, Finnish Broadcasting Company, Foundation for The Support of The
United Nations (FSUN), Japanese Medical Society of America, Ministry of
Education Finland, Pan American Health Organization (PAHO), PictureTel,
Sonera, Soros Foundation/Open Society Institute, United States Information
Agency (USIA), United States National Science Foundation, and the Information
and Development Program (infoDev) administered by the World Bank.

  This event brought together approximately 60 education professionals,
decision-makers and leaders in distance learning and telemedicine from 14
nations.  They discussed practical ways to harness the emerging technological
evolution of advanced global broadband wireless and satellite Internet in the
major regions of the globe to provide affordable, global distance learning
across national and cultural boundaries.

     2.4.1 Goals and Objectives

  The conference goals were to:
  *   promote accessible, affordable global distance learning;
  *   increase understanding of different cultural conditions, values, and needs;
  *   emphasize values of sustainability and equality;
  *   link enthusiasts with decision-makers and funding resources;
  *   identify pilot projects that will lead to full scale distance learning; and
  *   discuss standardization of courses, credits, and accreditation.

  The original objectives of this event were fulfilled.  They were to:
  *   bring together innovative leaders in distance learning from around the world;
  *   bring together with them rising young people in developing countries who
      will be future leaders;
  *   exchange information and ideas to take home;
      outline a list of important feasible projects in distance learning in
      major regions of the world to undertake as a next step in reducing
      distance learning gap between have and have-not regions;
  *   create a structure to recruit resources and to facilitate mutual
      learning from these projects.  This is the Global University System
      (GUS) to be based in Tampere, Finland.

     2.4.2 Establishment of Global University System (GUS)

  We formed a Global University System (GUS) with group activities of
prominent members in the major regions of the Asia/Pacific, North, Central and
South Americas, Europe and Africa (see PART II in the Final Report of this
workshop at the above mentioned web site).  Each of those regional groups are
now planning to hold mini-workshops to prepare for their large workshop
similar to our Tampere event in the near future in order to formalize the
pilot projects listed in the PART II.  The pilot projects are to foster the
establishment of GUS in their respective regions with the use of broadband
wireless and satellite Internet.  Included in the establishment are the
information infrastructure, the physical network of ground stations and
satellites, content, and the institutionalization of the GUS which is to be
financed by the Global Service Trust Fund (GSTF).

  The conference chairman, Dr. Tapio Varis of the University of Tampere, a
former rector of the United Nations University of Peace in Costa Rica,
accepted to be the Acting President of a newly formed GUS to lead the effort
to seek funding and carry out the projects.  Dr. Marco Antonio Dias, former
director of Higher Education of UNESCO, also kindly accepted to serve as the
Vice President for Administration of the GUS.  Dr. Takeshi Utsumi became the
President Emeritus and Vice President for Technology and Coordinations.

  Issues of information infrastructure and content of the proposed GUS were
examined in depth.  The GUS will establish pilot projects that can be
disseminated as "best practices" examples for the further development and
deployment of effective international distance learning partnerships.

  In order to support this GUS, the establishments of global private virtual
network with broadband Internet and of the Global Service Trust Fund (GSTF)
were also discussed at this event.

     2.4.3 Discussions on Global Broadband Internet

  In addition, GUS will foster the development of distance learning and
telemedicine pilot projects using broadband Internet technology in order to
enhance their teaching/learning capabilities.  The GUS will also facilitate
connectivity among current distance learning efforts around the world and will
provide support and guidance to selected pilot projects intended to serve as
models for adoption around the world.

     2.4.4 Discussions on Global Service Trust Fund (GSTF)

  Deployment of wireless broadband Internet on a global scale, training of
facilitators, development of advanced courseware, administration of delivery
systems, etc. require huge investments.  These can only be made by the private
sector and national governments with some support from multilateral agencies
and the collaboration of overseas development assistance agencies of major
Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) countries in the
case of training and content development.  For this purpose, the conference
worked on a proposal for a Global Service Trust Fund (GSTF) to finance the
needed telecommunications capacity for education and health applications in
developing countries.  The GSTF is the emulation of the Universal Service Fund
of the US Federal Communications Commission (FCC) and which will be a pool of
the Overseas Development Assistant (ODA) funds of G7 countries in the
magnitude of several billion dollars for ten years.  The creation of the GSTF
is to be made by the International Coalition for Global Information
Infrastructure (GII) in Education and Healthcare (hereinafter the Coalition).

  This was further discussed at a meeting held at the Pan American Health
Organization (PAHO) in Washington on 20 December 1999, and a revised version
of the plan was presented at the Founders' Conference of the [Arthur C.]
Clarke Institute for Telecommunications and Information (CITI) at INTELSAT
headquarters in Washington on 5 February 2000.

3.   Philosophies and Principles of GUS

  The philosophies and principles of the GUS are set forth in the following eight propositions.

  3.1 Transcultural, globalwide initiative

  The highest priority of the GUS is to launch a transcultural, globalwide
initiative (using modern techniques of communication) to promote the kinds of
global education that will advance peace, justice, understanding, and human
wisdom.  The GUS seeks to encourage a sense of transnational identity, a
feeling of global community which is necessary for the survival, creative
growth and constructive transformation of our species.  Indeed, the survival
of our globe itself may depend on such transformation.  All those who
participate in the GUS will share a firm commitment to the goals set forth,
and pledge to pursue them with ongoing vigor.  In asking members to affirm and
support our agreed-upon aims, we follow the charter of the United Nations.
However a lesson may also be learned from disappointments encountered in the
UN experience.  Bearing these in mind, we shall address the task of
implementing the stated goals; bridging the gap between principle and
practice, long-range plans and short-term actions, and dreams for the future
and present realities.

  3.2 The GUS to demonstrate moral leadership

  The GUS has no intention of dictating morality to its participants.  It
will encourage free and open dialog among those with differing opinions and
outlooks.  But, in view of the challenges confronting humankind at this
critical juncture in its history, it behooves us to demonstrate moral
leadership in the various activities we undertake.  The GUS will not enter
into partnership with any applicant planning to use its power for objectives
such as the waging of war or the oppression of its citizens.  A policy of the
GUS is to offer courses, programs, or practices that are compatible with the
interests of global understanding and accord.  Moreover, the GUS intends to
show moral leadership in a positive manner by promoting curricula and
activities, such as peace gaming and global village meetings, that will
facilitate global harmony directly.  The GUS hopes to play an active and
meaningful role in addressing the manifold difficulties facing humankind --
war, pollution, disease, hunger -- by fostering an attitude of trust, empathy
and compassion, a sense of solidarity and global identity.

  3.3 Priority on academic freedom

  In a world now fragmented by hosts of competing special interests, a globe
endangered by the tribal rivalries of the nation-states, we affirm our
university as a place where teaching and thinking are given free reign to be
truly ecological -- to address problems and crises global in scope.  If the
"zero sum game" is no longer winnable, if the globe is shrinking to the point
where a crisis anywhere is a crisis everywhere, we require the latitude to
think globally, bound neither by the motives of profit nor power.  In short,
the GUS espouses academic freedom as an essential value.  We trust that those
who support us will pledge to uphold this cherished principle.

  3.4 The GUS to stress quality education

  The GUS will place an emphasis on quality in all its programs and courses
of instruction.  It will draw its curriculum from known centers of learning
around the world and seek to identify new centers of excellence and creative
scholarship.  The undertakings of the GUS will include the most up-to-date
research and methods, the most recent developments and insights in its various
fields of study, and will be supported and enhanced by the latest advances in
communication technology.  To respond to the immediate needs of its students,
the GUS will offer culturally relevant educational experiences not readily
available in local institutions, perhaps not available through any other means
but an electronic university that is interactive in nature and global in scope.

  At the same time, the GUS will remain cognizant of the collective needs of
the globe.  Recognizing that the welter of newly generated information and
technologies can itself constitute a significant problem for humankind as a
whole, the GUS will seek to temper the fragmentizing effects of contemporary
innovation.  The GUS will encourage curricula in which the latest facts and
newest techniques are grounded and integrated with the wisdom of our oldest
traditions, holistic and ecological approaches found at the core of every
native culture on the globe.  Accordingly, the GUS will define a "quality
education" as one which promotes an integration of the social, economic,
political, and spiritual insights of East and West, North and South, masculine
and feminine -- encompassing the wisdom of the past, the richness of cultural
diversity and the transformative potentialities of the present and future.  An
education of high quality must give students the most powerful tools of
thought accessible to them; it must give them the fullest and clearest version
of the facts; and it must interpret the facts, as analyzed by the tools, in
accordance with the best-articulated system of values available.  The GUS will
exhibit respect for freedom and dignity by giving many cultures the
opportunity to express themselves in their own best terms.

  3.5 Initiative to be shared with students

  The GUS partnership of universities, businesses, governmental,
nongovernmental, and community organizations will be guided by, and remain
fully responsive to, the felt needs and stated aspirations of students,
workers and individual citizens around the globe.  The GUS will search for
ways to make it possible for persons of any means in any region of the world
to have the opportunity to obtain the highest quality education, as they
define it.  We dedicate ourselves to the promotion of literacy and lifelong
learning, so that global economic equity and employment flexibility may be
achieved.  Moreover, we pledge our educational resources to the advancement of
scholarship and creative growth on a globalwide basis.

  3.6 Transnational collaboration on research

  The GUS will work diligently to help make it possible for researchers in
significant fields of study to collaborate across national boundaries,
engaging in joint research projects facilitated by computer, telecommunication
and information technologies.  A rich new interplay of disciplines and schools
of thought is possible through such electronic cooperation and interchange.
By bringing many minds together through computer networking and conferencing,
our "collective intelligence" can be brought to bear in exploring fresh
approaches to global issues.

  But the global problems to be addressed include widespread human suffering:
physical, emotional and spiritual anguish, and distress.  This suggests that
exchanges between and among researchers, faculty and students must be more
than intellectual.  An affective component seems required.  Through
intercultural transactions in the arts and humanities, through more intimate
interpersonal exchanges, the heart must be engaged as well as the mind.  If
compassion, trust and empathy are to be fostered, if a sense of global
solidarity is to be attained, we must be willing to share our feelings as well
as our ideas.

  3.7 Commitment to openness

  The GUS endorses the precept of unrestricted access to all information and
educational resources at its disposal.  To advance this goal, it will sponsor
a space-station library system that will be open to any educational
institution, group, network or individual anywhere in the world.  The GUS will
facilitate the free exchange of ideas and insights around the globe and then
strive to maintain openness at every level of its own operations.

  3.8 Toward transcultural unity-in-difference

  The GUS is committed to the goal of counteracting the depersonalizing
effects of mass technology.  But rather than limiting itself to the aim of
meeting the purely personal needs of its participants, its primary aim is
transpersonal -- it seeks to encourage a sharing of minds and hearts across
personal, disciplinary, scientific and cultural barriers.  Entailed here is an
exploratory process of dialog and compassionate exchange that should lead
neither to cultural homogenization nor cultural fragmentation, but to a
dynamic synthesis of unity and diversity, a transcultural unity-in-difference.

4.   Mission of GUS

  Globalization is the world phenomenon in the 21st Century in every facets
of industry, commerce, economy, culture, etc., thanks to rapid advancement of
transportation, telecommunication, computer and information technologies.  It
is vital necessity to build global citizenship for world peace.  Education and
healthcare are basic needs, fundamental for human development.  The missions
of GUS are then;

  1. Global Education:     To foster trust among people with better
                           understanding, beyond parochialism, national,
                           continental, oceanic  boundaries.

  2. Global Healthcare:    To promote the wellness of people at every corner
                           of the world.

5.   Goals of GUS

  In recognition of the wide range of critical problems currently facing
humankind, the goal of the GUS is to expand and improve the global learning
opportunities and wellness environment for people in the global knowledge
society where everybody shares the global responsibility.  The GUS is
directing itself, particularly in developing countries, by enabling these
countries to:

  1. Make possible full use of the highest quality of global electronic
     distance learning and telehealth/telemedicine for all global citizens.
  2. Participate interactively and fully in joint research, professional
     development, and knowledge-building activities with institutions and
     organizations in other countries, including such projects as:
     a.   globally networked "think tanks" for examining philosophical
          assumptions, creating new models of educational exchange, and
          collaborating on problems of global concern;
     b.   research on new technologies that would improve the quality of
          educational endeavors; and
     c.   global coordination of research results and the accomplishments of
          educators around the world.
  3. Participate actively and fully in data- and media-intensive exchanges
     with both developed countries and other developing countries, with the
     use of global-scale tools such as peace-gaming and global village
     meetings so as to explore new alternatives for a world-order capable of
     addressing the problems and opportunities of an interdependent globe.
  4. Globalization of employment opportunities to enhance the job flexibility
     and lifestyles of all the world's workers.

6.   Objective of GUS

  The GUS will coordinate and facilitate national and international regional
systems which will support and complement the traditional educational and
healthcare institutions by using conventional methods in tandem with advanced
electronic media to further this goal.  The GUS seeks open, egalitarian and
culturally transparent methods to achieve improved learning and healthcare
worldwide, cooperating closely with people around the world.

  In order to further the goals and objectives, the GUS will be engaged in;
  1. Construction of global broadband Internet networks;
       To provide enhanced multimedia telelearning at affordable costs, and
       To have high resolution diagnostic image for telemedicine.
  2. Development of teaching materials;
       For the use of advanced multimedia technologies and
  3. Global network of facilitators;
       With training of teachers of teachers

7.   Structures of GUS

  The "satellite hubs" as well as administrative centers in the above
mentioned regions would allow for more concentrated and efficient area efforts
that would be overseen by the main administrative center of the GUS
Headquarters.  The hubs and administration centers could possibly be as
follows.   This is a natural separation by languages, culture and geography.

  7.1 Proposed Administrative Centers and Satellite Hubs in Developed Countries

(Pls see the table here at

  American parties have substantial experience to contribute to this project
regarding the exchange of educational, vocational, and medical information and
knowledge with counterparts around the world.  The U.S. educational service is
now becoming a sought-after export commodity.  This will then hopefully become
educational exchange among countries in the near future, i.e., "the 21st
century version of the Fulbright exchange program."

  It is essential for American colleagues to participate in this project from
the initial stages.  American participants will be instrumental in providing
experience and demonstrations using broadband Internet access for education
and access to information, and it will be critical to include American
colleagues in the initial technical and content project design.

  7.2 Proposed Administrative Centers and Satellite Hubs in Each Region of Developing Countries

(Pls see the table here at

  7.3 Regional Satellite Hubs and Infrastructures

  Global broadband Internet deployment will require the establishment of hub
stations which will be linked through the use of geostationary satellites and
broadband terrestrial cables.  The basic web of interconnectivity would emerge
>from each regional satellite hub and would be more manageable than from a
single source which covers the entire globe.  For example, the University of
Tennessee/Knoxville is expected to be the major satellite hub in North America
for the Central/Caribbean/South America operations.  Each region would, of
course, have direct interconnectivity with other regions but would be able to
concentrate the initial efforts of their region.  The initial effort being the
assessment of connectivity among the regional satellite hubs and all of the
prospective subsidiary wireless (or not) stations of their constituent members.

  Once the basic connectivity infrastructure is determined and resolved in
each region, the connectivity among the home satellite hubs of regions would
be all that remained to be done by the terrestrial broadband Internet lines.
All of the regional infrastructures and groups would be coordinated and
administered by the GUS Headquarters in Finland.

  Since the regional satellite hubs are all interconnected and also connected
to the Global University Administrative hub, separation is primarily needed so
that one regional hub would not face an overwhelming amount of work and,
additionally, the time and travel cost factors do come into play as well as
the culture and language issues.

  Each satellite hub would have a systems person assigned as an
infrastructure specialist to oversee the connectivity.

  7.4 Administrative Centers

  Each Administration Center would be able to perform functions such as
course registration, tuition payments and other student services related
paperwork. This would prevent any single entity from being overwhelmed.

  Each regional Administrative Center would also perform an assessment of on-
line programming (in their region) which could be accessed from the region's
satellite hub.

  The student information stored in each Administrative Center's database
would of course be made available to the main administrative center of the GUS
Headquarters as well as to other administrative centers.

8.   Global Broadband Internet

  The Internet will be the main telecommunication media of tomorrow.  It has
been extended to most countries, albeit with slow-to-medium speed in most
developing countries, and even in large parts of the developed world.  But the
full potential for achieving revolutionary advances in education and
healthcare in developing countries cannot be realized with the currently
available information delivery infrastructure and at currently prevailing market prices.

  Improved distance education requires much better ways of presenting
information and of enabling learners to interact with facilitators to enable
the learners to process that information into personal knowledge.

  At present most electronic distance learning takes place rather limited
programming and delivery modes.  Much of the instructional programming is
limited to text and simple graphics delivered over the web and/or through e-
mail and its derivatives (electronic fora, bulletin boards, chat rooms).  On
the other, there is "room-based" or desktop-based videoconferencing, usually
with relatively small groups involved and low production values so far as the
video and audio are concerned.  Both techniques allow significant interaction,
but the quality of instruction can suffer from the lack of high-quality audio and video.

  High-quality instruction is possible by broadcast television, with multi-
million dollar production budgets having been deployed to good effect in some
countries, for example Annenberg/CBP in the US, BBC/Open University in the UK,
and The Roberto Marinho Foundation's Telecurso 2000 and Canal Futura in
Brazil.  But there has been limited interactivity for these programs beyond
what is possible by telephone, fax and more recently e-mail and its
derivatives.  Because of these difficulties of interactivity, which is the
essential need for effective learning, and of high costs with earth station at
established organization, the analog broadcasting type satellite education in
the U.S. has now been declined to mere one third of once peak time usage.

  Narrow bandwidth and high telecommunications costs limit the use of
streaming video and audio on a large scale.  Often telecommunications networks
get clogged even with heavy net use of more conventional kinds.  Many
audiences, even in developing countries, are "spoiled" by commercial
television with high production values.  Even for educational programming,
these audiences do not easily accept jerky movement, small windows, failing
connections, and low production values.  The quality of tele-lectures, video
inserts and the like can only approximate the high production values of
commercial television.  As for telemedicine, there is a proven need for high-
definition moving images, or at least extremely high-resolution still images
for many applications.  Even with low-cost or free broadband connectivity
between nations, the cost and pricing structure of telecommunications in many
developing countries keep the cost of access to the Internet at prohibitive
levels, and inappropriate policy and regulatory frameworks do not encourage
efficient use of those public resources for education and healthcare.

  In sum, what is needed is both high quality audio/video delivery and high
quality interactivity.  A true revolution in distance learning and
telemedicine requires high-speed access to the World Wide Web, allowing the
flexibility to offer a variety of media.  These might include two-way audio,
full-motion video-conferencing up to MPEG 2 quality, television-quality
netcasting, and high-resolution image transfer for telemedicine.  Such
capabilities require medium to broad bandwidth.  Developing countries need
broadband Internet via international satellite and fiber-optic cable.

  The revolution in education and healthcare in developing countries also
requires a more favorable policy environment, not just for telecommunications
but also for education and healthcare.  A key to bringing down prices to
affordable levels is to establish national and international competition or at
least flexibility in the provision of telecommunications, education, and
healthcare services.  Also rapid transfer of knowledge from developed to
developing countries needs to be possible.

  Each regional satellite hub of the GUS mentioned above will be connected
with their counterparts in developed countries with the use of digital
satellites across continents and oceans.  However, if possible, it is
desirable to use optical fiber terrestrial line to avoid time delay (about 0.3
seconds) for the one hop round trip to/from geostationary satellite.  This is
because more than 0.5 seconds time delay necessitates simplex (or walkie-
talkie) type conversation, as prohibiting effective audio conversation which
is absolute necessity of videoconferencing.

  The each regional satellite hub will then be connected to regional
constituent member organizations (elementary and secondary schools, libraries,
hospitals, local governmental agencies, etc.) in mid-range (50 to 200 miles)
apart from each other with the use of microwave broadband (1.5 to 45 Mbps)
Internet networks.

  Those organizations will then emanate the broadband Internet service
further to similar nearby (up to 25 miles) organizations with wireless spread
spectrum broadband (3 to 10 Mbps) Internet networks, which use does not
require license in most of countries.

  These are the so-called  fixed wireless" approach with the requirement of
the  line-of-sight."  However, this technology can be used only among
buildings.  The users have to belong to the organizations of the buildings,
hence prohibiting the use of the broadband Internet by individual outreach
students at their homes.  Fortunately, for their use, the so-called  mobil
wireless" units are rapidly appearing in the market, e.g., 96 Kbps or 164 Kbps
Internet access with mobil video-phone in Japan.  Nokia presented their
research goal of 34 Mbps video-phone by 2004 during our Tampere event
mentioned above.  This is an amazing future, since it can have HDTV,
telephony, fax, voice mail, e-mail, web access, videoconferencing, etc., i.e.,
almost every kind of telecommunication at that speed.  Distance learning for
anyone, anywhere, and anytime can be realized with it.  The only question not
discussed in the Nokia presentation was that of who will provide such
broadband Internet backbone.  The Nokia representatives indicated that they
would be willing to work with the GUS organizers toward the goal of
establishing global wireless broadband Internet, including even the last mile to users.

  This is not only to help local community development, but also assure close
cooperation among higher, middle and lower levels of education, e.g., for
teacher training, and courseware development, etc.  In a sense, the regional
satellite hub is to be the major Internet Service Provider (ISP) of the global
private (exclusive) virtual network (PVN) for not-for-profit organizations in
the region, and the gateway to the outside world.

9.   Global Service Trust Fund (GSTF)

  Deployment of this high-speed Internet for education and health
applications in developing countries would be financed with a Global Service
Trust Fund (GSTF) for distance learning and telehealth/telemedicine.

  9.1 Objective

  Objective steps must be taken to:
  *   Reduce the cost of broadband connectivity to a level poor countries can afford.
  *   Create policy and regulatory frameworks conducive to the development of
      sustainable distance learning and telemedicine programs.
  *   Establish high-quality applications in sufficient developing country
      sites to demonstrate technical feasibility, increase demand, and build
      support for more extensive use of such technologies in developing
      country contexts.

  Ideally all countries would have access to free or low-cost broadband
connectivity and would have the technical capacity to make use of it for
improving education and healthcare.  This assumes a number of favorable
economic outcomes as well as changes in policy and regulatory environments
supporting the effective use of these technologies.

  This proposal takes a more limited objective: to make available sufficient
broad bandwidth at free or highly reduced cost to enable a significant number
of developing countries to undertake major new initiatives in distance
learning and telemedicine.  The GSTF would support distance  learning and
telehealth programming only through the provision of broad bandwidth, without
making any judgments about the content to be purveyed by specific projects.
This content could be in any language and from any source, subject only to the
telecommunications, education, and healthcare policy conditionality.

  9.2 Finance and Organization

  While more than 200 universities in the US now have 45 Mbps Internet and
more than a half of elementary schools have 1.5 Mbps Internet, the Leland
program of USAID provides only 128 Kbps Internet to two dozen African
countries, and the international linkage of Ukraine is at only 1.5 Mbps.  The
University of the South Pacific in Fiji needs to pay $7500 per month for 64
Kbps lease line to New Zealand.  Their USPNet provides a dozen nearby islands
with satellite Internet at 64 Kbps and at 128 Kbps to 4 islands among them.
The University of Rondonia in Brazil has only a 56 Kbps leased line for
thousands of students.  Its professors simply gave up the use of the Internet.
The required investments for the needed broadband distance learning and
healthcare are currently beyond the resources available to most education and
health institutions in developing countries, and indeed to the countries
themselves in most cases.

  The proposed GSTF might be modeled on the Universal Service Fund of the
U.S.  Federal Communications Commission, which provides for discounts of 20-
90% on a variety of telecommunications services and equipment for schools and
libraries.  The GSTF especially aims to ease the congestion of the
international Internet lines across continents and oceans, for which no
organizations have currently being taken care of.

  Ideally, funding would be sufficient to eliminate the telecommunications
cost for qualified education and healthcare applications.  A second solution
might be a subsidized International E-Rate akin to the "E-Rate" now benefiting
schools in the United States.  A third option could be to begin with free
bandwidth, but raise it toward (expected to be declining) market prices in
gradual steps using the International E-Rate model.

  A good example is the aforementioned USPNet of the University of the South
Pacific in Fiji, which received several million dollars from the governments
of Japan, Australia and New Zealand for earth stations and other necessary
equipment, and free use of INTELSAT satellite channels.

  Two separate contribution "funds" or "sources" would be established, an in-
kind bandwidth transmission source and a financial assistance source.  The
Coalition ideally would include a broad coalition of commercial and
governmental sources.  These might include key international organizations
such as the International Telecommunications Union (ITU), the United Nations
Educational, Cultural, and Scientific Organization (UNESCO), the World Health
Organization (WHO), and International Labor Organization (ILO).  The Coalition
would also include international development banks, bilateral aid agencies,
foundations, and companies contributing to the GSTF as well as organizations
contributing education and healthcare knowledge.  The GSTF could be
administered in a variety of ways, but it must have well organized, credible
and financially scrupulous entity of significant international standing in
charge in the disbursement of funds.

  The proposed GSTF would be financed from a variety of public and private
sources, which could include:
  *   Overseas Development Assistance (ODA) funds of countries belonging to
      the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) with
      multi-lateral collaboration,

       The precedences of government funded large scale projects are;
       *   Biology -- Human genome project,
       *   Nuclear physics -- cyclotron,
       *   Space -- space station,
       *   Astronomy -- Hubs telescope,
       *   Meteorology, etc.
       It is desirable to have similarly large scale project for global
       electronic distance learning, global healthcare and telemedicine.

  *   Cash contributions from the profits of international financial
      institutions such as the World Bank and the regional development banks.
  *   Cash contributions from foundations and companies.
  *   Contributions in kind from companies owning underused satellite
      transponders and/or fiber optic cable for these companies, the marginal
      cost of making available underused existing bandwidth is near zero, but
      providing it may build future markets for sale at (declining) commercial prices.

  The GSTF's bandwidth source might be allocated through a variety of means
that might even include an auction process to organizers of distance learning
and telemedicine projects in qualifying countries.  The cash source might be
used for grants to fund access to bandwidth for such projects, with rules
favoring poorer countries and end beneficiaries, assuring a certain
geographical distribution of benefits between regions, and so forth.  Grants
might also favor international knowledge sharing.  All grants would be made
through open competitive process.  These are only some preliminary ideas.  The
details, including the establishment of a pilot version of the GSTF to test
operational principles, need to be worked out during the next stage in
proposal development.

  9.3 Clarke Institute of Telecommunications and Information (CITI)

  This activity is now being adopted by the newly established [Arthur C.]
Clarke Institute of Telecommunications and Information (CITI) and coordinated
through GLOSAS/USA and the GUS.  The GSTF will, however, eventually be an
independent entity and be operationalized under the auspices of international
organizations including INTELSAT, UNESCO, ITU, WHO, ILO, and the World Bank
Group, with active participation by working groups to be convened by these
organizations.  These working groups would include representatives of other
interested organizations, such as foundations, other NGOs, private companies
involved in telecommunications, other private companies interested in distance
learning and telehealth/telemedicine, bilateral aid agencies, regional
development banks, and the like.

  The basic idea is to mobilize both financial resources, and under-utilized
broad (Internet 2 level) bandwidth on both satellite transponders and land
lines (especially submarine optic fiber cables) which would be made available
for use by distance learning and telehealth/telemedicine projects in
qualifying developing countries.  There is also a need to set up a credible,
reliable, and competent structure to administer the allocation of both the
financial resources (which can be used to purchase bandwidth), as well as the
in-kind donations of underused bandwidth which would be solicited from its owners.

  International institutions with the relevant mandates (ITU, UNESCO, WHO,
and ILO, etc.) are being asked to convene the working groups on policy
conditionality for a country to qualify for GSTF resources, and global
institutions such as INTELSAT and the World Bank Group are proposed as
conveners of the working group on operational questions.  Either of these
institutions could house and administer the funding mechanism, or it could be
delegated to third parties or a new entity.  That decision would emerge from
the recommendations of the working groups.  The project proposal proponents
are currently contacting the international institutions referred to above to
verify their interest in convening the working groups.

  In the discussion group at the CITI Founders' conference on February 5,
2000, it was noted that finding and getting commitment of a respected and
"nationally neutral" entity for implementation of this project would be most desirable.

  9.4 Next Steps & Recommendations of the GSTF Working Group

  Establishing the GSTF requires a critical mass of global support for these
new organizations.   Creation of a preliminary coalition of participants to
support the "bandwidth source" as well as the "financial aid source" would be
critical to the initial testing of this concept.  The ability to mobilize
financial and in-kind resources for the GSTF depends on the credibility of the
membership of the coalition.  That credibility would be furthered by early
support from such key international entities as commercial satellite and fiber
optic service providers, multi-national businesses, national governmental aid
agencies, foundations, and agencies of the United Nations such as the ITU,
UNESCO, WHO, ILO, the World Bank Group (including the International Finance
Corporation), and the regional development banks (African Development Bank,
Asian Development Bank, European Bank for Reconstruction and Development, and
the Inter-American Development Bank).  No legitimate agency of standing would
be excluded from participating.

  To that end, the working group recommends that:

  1. A more polished and developed draft of the proposal be put before major
     international conferences in 2000.  These would include the Second
     International Global Knowledge Conference (GKII) to be held in Kuala
     Lumpur, Malaysia 7-10 March 2000, and other international conferences
     that follow that of the Clarke Institute for Telecommunications and Information.

  2. An intensive effort be made to enlist the support of the leadership of
     the key international institutions mentioned above, facilitating the
     mobilization of bilateral aid agencies, foundations, and multinational corporations.

  3. Working groups on telecommunications policy conditionality, education
     policy conditionality, healthcare policy conditionality, and operational
     aspects of the GSTF and the Coalition be convened respectively by ITU,
     UNESCO, WHO, ILO, and the World Bank.  These working groups would
     include representatives of other interested international organizations,
     bilateral aid agencies, companies, foundations, and other NGOs, as well
     as of relevant information and telecommunications industry
     organizations, e.g., the Global Information Infrastructure Commission.

  It is hoped that providers of satellite or fiber optic system capacity
would be willing to join in further working group discussions to shape the
framework for the "pilot version" of the GSTF for distance learning and

10.  Next Steps with GUS Regional Activities

  During the aforementioned Tampere event, the attendees formulated specific
pilot projects focussed on six major regions of the world to reduce the
growing digital divide between information rich and information poor
populations.  These prospective projects are being developed for (1) the
Asia-Pacific region (with the Philippines as its first target, and with
sub-regions of Malaysia and South Pacific), (2) North America (for indigenous
peoples in the states of Arizona and Montana and in Calgary in Canada), (3)
Central America, (4) South America (mainly for Amazon basin in initial stage),
(5) Europe (firstly with Ukraine and with Pakistan and Egypt later), and (6)
Africa -- see PART II in the Final Report of the Tampere event at

  The pilot projects outlined in detail at the conclusion of the conference
have been identified from grassroots needs and capabilities.  Yet they connect
to a global vision of the potential for the use of the web in distance
learning to reach out to institutions and people who are ready to use it right
now.  The projects are tailored to local and regional needs and capacities,
but they will also learn from each other.

  There is a high level of momentum to propel us forward as a result of
excellent Tampere conference.  The challenge now is to remain focussed on what
can be done both to crystallize the structure that has evolved out of Tampere,
and to secure the resources to move ahead with the pilot projects that have
been identified, along with key people who have agreed to assist and enable
them to move forward.

  Each of these regional groups are now preparing to hold a mini-workshop to
bring together decision-makers from underserved countries and leaders in
distance learning and telemedicine to discuss practical solutions for the
implementation of affordable global electronic distance learning and
telehealth/telemedicine across national boundaries and to establish
partnerships for pilot projects.

  The main objective of mini-workshops (2 to 3 days) is to prepare for the
full workshops with major funding (4 to 5 days in similar scale as our Tampere
event) where the proposed pilot projects with feasibility study, action plan,
administrative structure, etc. will be formalized by the participating members
in their regions.  The pilot projects are deployments of distance learning and
telemedicine with the use of current narrowband Internet and of broadband
Internet later when available.

  The purposes of the mini-workshops are;
  1. to learn by the North American and European counterparts the current
     status of distance learning and telemedicine (including the delivery
     infrastructure) of the regional groups in the developing countries,
  2. to learn the need of the regional groups in the future,
  3. to present what can be (or will be) available from North America and Europe,
     a.   via narrow-band Internet and ISDN, etc., i.e., through currently
          available telecom infrastructure,
     b.   via broadband Internet when it is available,
  4. to configure administrative and business schemes,
  5. to make an action plan,
  6. to plan, program and construct a joint fund raising proposal for a
     workshop / conference (as to follow-up to our Tampere event) with the
     people of the region.  This event is to produce a concrete feasibility
     study, design of infrastructure and administrative structure, selection
     of courseware, etc.

  It is important to note that these workshops are not a one-time experience.
Post-conference work in project technical design, required advanced multimedia
curriculum, collaborative opportunities for course delivery and joint proposal
writing will ensue and will be required of conference participants.  Proposals
will be prepared and submitted to appropriate funding agencies.

11.  Conclusions

  The Tampere meeting was a study in contrasts, and clearly showed the
enormous gap between the "haves" and the "have-nots".  On the one hand, some
of the players have tremendous resources with which to deploy broadband
wireless technology; on the other hand, some must operate on a shoestring
budget, and even lack adequate basic wireline services as a starting point.  A
major challenge will be to identify technology which will be appropriate (in
terms of start-up and operating costs, maintainability by local people, etc.)
in the "have not" situations.

  Thanks to our highly successful event with extraordinary supports and
cooperations of many funding sources, such as the World Bank, the US National
Science Foundation, and colleagues around the world, substantial momentum for
our Global Initiative is now building up to have follow-up workshops and
conferences to forge ahead the establishment of the GUS with global broadband
Internet and Global Service Trust Fund (GSTF) by multilateral collaborations.

Reference web sites:



2.   Tampere conference:


3.   Global University System:


4.   Global University System: Asia-Pacific Framework:


5.   Global broadband Internet networks:


6.   Global Service Trust Fund (GSTF):




7.   Manaus workshop:



  The author express his sincere thanks to Dr. Peter Knight of Knight & Moore
in Washington, D.C. for his excellent contribution to the GSTF project.  The
author also greatly appreciates extraordinary cooperation made by the
attendees of the Tampere event and his listserve members for this GUS project.


  Takeshi Utsumi, Ph.D., P.E., is Chairman of the GLObal Systems Analysis and
Simulation Association in the USA (GLOSAS/USA).  He is the 1994 Laureate of
Lord Perry Award for the Excellence in Distance Education.  His public service
has included political work for the deregulation of global telecommunications
and the use of e-mail through ARPANET, Telenet and the Internet; working to
extend American university courses to the Third World; the conduct of
innovative distance teaching trials with "Global Lecture Hall(GLH)"
multipoint-to multipoint multimedia interactive videoconferences using hybrid
technologies; and lectures, consultation and research in process control,
management science, systems science and engineering at the University of
Michigan, the University of Pennsylvania, M.I.T. and many universities,
governmental agencies and large firms in Japan and other countries.

  Highlights among his more than 150 related scientific papers and books are
presentations at the Summer Computer Simulation Conferences (which he created
and named) and the Society for Computer Simulation International.  He is a
member of various scientific and professional groups, including the Chemists
Club (New York, NY); Columbia University Seminar on Computers, Man and Society
(New York, NY); Fulbright Association (Washington, D.C.); International Center
for Integrative Studies (ICIS) (New York, NY); and the Society of Satellite
Professionals International (Washington, D.C.).

  He received his Ph.D. in chemical engineering from the Polytechnic
University in New York and his M.S. in Ch.E. from Montana State University,
after studying at the University of Nebraska under a Fulbright scholarship.
His professional experience in simulation and optimization of petrochemical
and refinery processes was gained at Mitsubishi Research Institute, Tokyo;
Stone & Webster Engineering Corp., Boston; Mobil Oil Corporation and Shell
Chemical Company, New York; and Asahi Chemical Industry, Inc., Tokyo.
                      List of Distribution

Alexandre Rivas, Ph.D.
Adjunct Professor
Director of the Center for Environmental Sciences
University of Amazonas - Brazil
C.P. 4208, Manaus 69053-140
+55-92-644 23 22
Fax: +55-92-644 23 84

Steve McCarty
Professor, Kagawa Junior College
President, World Association for Online Education (WAOE)
3717-33 Nii Kokubunji, Kagawa 769-0101 JAPAN
+81-877-49-8041 (office, direct line); Fax: +81-877-49-5252
steve@kagawa-jc.ac.jp, steve_mc@kagawa-jc.ac.jp, mccarty@mail.goo.ne.jp (web mail)
Website Map: http://www.kagawa-jc.ac.jp/~steve/
Home page in Japanese / English / WAOE organization
Online library in Japanese / English (Asian Studies WWW Virtual Library 4-star site)
Fundamental Projects of Dr. Takeshi Utsumi (English and Japanese)
Global University System Asia-Pacific Framework

* Takeshi Utsumi, Ph.D., P.E., Chairman, GLOSAS/USA                  *
* (GLObal Systems Analysis and Simulation Association in the U.S.A.) *
* Laureate of Lord Perry Award for Excellence in Distance Education  *
* Founder of CAADE                                                   *
* (Consortium for Affordable and Accessible Distance Education)      *
* President Emeritus and V.P. for Technology and Coordination of     *
*   Global University System (GUS)                                   *
* 43-23 Colden Street, Flushing, NY 11355-3998, U.S.A.               *
* Tel: 718-939-0928; Fax: 718-939-0656 (day time only--prefer email) *
* Email: utsumi@columbia.edu;  Tax Exempt ID: 11-2999676             *
* http://www.friends-partners.org/GLOSAS/                            *

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