<<September 22, 2000>>
Archived distributions can be retrieved by clicking on the top lines of our home page at <http://www.friends-partners.org/GLOSAS/>.

Dr. Joseph N. Pelton <ecjpelton@aol.com>

Peter T. Knight, Ph.D. <ptknight@attglobal.net>

Francis J. Method <fmethod@erols.com>

Dear Joe, Peter and Frank:

(1) Many thanks for your mtg at Joe's office on 9/18th.

(2) As discussed, I will attend the annual conference of the International
Institute of Communications (IIC) in Tampa, FL from 9/25th to 9/28th to
form an Invitation Committee for the Global Summit to create a Global
Service Trust Fund (GSTF) which will be held in the middle of 2001 in
Washington, D.C.

(3) ATTACHMENT I and II are the materials Joe and Peter prepared which I
will distribute at the conference.

Dear Electronic Colleagues:

(4) Pls retrieve relevant previous distribution "Invitation Committee for
Global Summit of GSTF project - September 4, 2000" at


Best, Tak

Project to Create a Global Service Trust Fund (GSTF)
for Tele-education and Tele-health
(Version 4-21 June 2000)

This proposal was prepared by a working group described in the footnote at the
end of this document. This paper was presented for discussion at the
Founder's Conference for the Sir Arthur Clarke Institute for
Telecommunications and Information (CITI) held at INTELSAT Headquarters on 5
February 2000. It has been amended to reflect suggestions and comments made at
that conference as well as a meeting held at the National Telephone
Cooperative Association (NTCA) on 20 June 2000 that discussed the possible
holding of a summit meeting of key world leaders in order to establish the
GSTF at the earliest possible opportunities.


Education and healthcare are basic needs, fundamental for human development.
The main goal of the proposed Coalition is to expand educational opportunities
and improve health in developing countries by enabling these countries to:
* Make full use of electronic distance education and telemedicine.
* Participate actively and fully in data-intensive and
media-intensive exchanges with both developed countries and other
developing countries.
* Participate interactively and fully in joint research,
professional development, and knowledge-building activities with
institutions and organizations in other countries.

To do this, steps must be taken to:
* Reduce the cost of broadband connectivity to a level poor countries can afford.
* Create policy and regulatory frameworks conducive to the
development of sustainable distance education and tele-medicine programs.
* Establish high-quality applications in sufficient developing
country sites to demonstrate technical feasibility, increase
demand, and build support for more extensive use of such
technologies in developing country contexts.

Ideally all countries would have access to free or low-cost broadband
connectivity and would have the technical capacity to make use of it for
improving education and healthcare. This assumes a number of favorable
economic outcomes as well as changes in policy and regulatory environments
supporting the effective use of these technologies.

This proposal takes a more limited objective: to make available sufficient
broad bandwidth at free or highly reduced cost to enable a significant number
of developing countries to undertake major new initiatives in distance
learning and telemedicine. The fund might also seek to aid in the support of
earth station facilities, solar power systems, local switching and local loop
telecommunications facilities, and new systems of tele-education and
tele-health programming. The prime objective would be to provide access to
satellite or fiber bandwidth capacity and directly related equipment needed
for the delivery of tele-education and tele-health information. Any activity
relating to creating new programming capability would be encouraged on the
basis of developing many sources of programming in many different languages on
a decentralized basis rather than seeking to develop a single source of

Background and Rationale

The Internet, with its rapidly expanding and improving infrastructure, will be
the main telecommunication media of tomorrow. It has been extended to most
countries, albeit with slow-to-medium speed in most developing countries, and
even in large parts of the developed world. But the full potential for
achieving revolutionary advances in education and healthcare in developing
countries cannot be realized with the currently available information delivery
infrastructure and at currently prevailing market prices.

Improved distance education requires much better ways of presenting
information and of enabling learners to interact with facilitators to enable
the learners to process that information into personal knowledge.

At present most electronic distance learning takes place via rather limited
programming and delivery modes. Much of the instructional programming is
limited to text and simple graphics delivered over the web and/or through
email and its derivatives (electronic fora, bulletin boards, chat rooms). On
the other, there is "room-based" or desktop-based videoconferencing, usually
with relatively small groups involved and low production values so far as the
video and audio are concerned. Both techniques allow significant interaction,
but the quality of instruction can suffer from the lack of high-quality audio and video.

High-quality instruction is possible by broadcast television, with
multi-million dollar production budgets having been deployed to good effect in
some countries, for example Annenberg/CBP in the US, BBC/Open University in
the UK, and The Roberto Marinho Foundation's Telecurso 2000 and Canal Futura
in Brazil. But there has been limited interactivity for these programs beyond
what is possible by telephone, fax and more recently email and its derivatives.

Narrow bandwidth and high telecommunications costs limit the use of streaming
video and audio on a large scale. Often telecommunications networks get
clogged even with heavy Net use of more conventional kinds. Many audiences,
even in developing countries, are "spoiled" by commercial television with high
production values. Even for educational programming, these audiences do not
easily accept jerky movement, small windows, failing connections, and low
production values. The quality of tele-lectures, video inserts and the like
can only approximate the high production values of commercial television. As
for telemedicine, there is a proven need for high-definition moving images, or
at least extremely high-resolution still images for many applications. Even
with low-cost or free broadband connectivity between nations, the cost and
pricing structure of telecommunications in many developing countries keep the
cost of access to the Internet at prohibitive levels, and inappropriate policy
and regulatory frameworks do not encourage efficient use of those public
resources for education and healthcare.

In sum, what is ultimately needed is both high quality audio/video delivery
and high quality interactivity. At the outset of the GSTF it may be possible
to obtain services that involve only high quality audio or limited amounts of
interactivity. From these beginnings, however, the longer term goals can be

A true revolution in distance learning and telemedicine requires access to the
World Wide Web, allowing the flexibility to offer a variety of media. These
might include two-way audio, one-way audio supplemented with broadcast
multi-media, full-motion video-conferencing up to MPEG 2 quality,
television-quality netcasting, and high-resolution image transfer for
tele-medicine. Such capabilities require medium to broad bandwidth downstream
and low to medium bandwidth upstream. Ultimately developing countries need
broadband Internet via international satellite and fiber-optic cable and this
should remain a goal, even if the initial services are at lower data rates.

The revolution in education and healthcare in developing countries also
requires a more favorable policy environment, not just for telecommunications
but also for education and healthcare. A key to bringing down prices to
affordable levels is to establish national and international competition or at
least flexibility in the provision of telecommunications, education, and
healthcare services. Also rapid transfer of knowledge from developed to
developing countries needs to be possible.

Finance and Organization

Deployment of this high-speed Internet for education and health applications
in developing countries would be financed with a Global Service Trust Fund
(GSTF) for tele-education and tele-health. The Fund might be modeled on the
Universal Service Fund of the U.S. Federal Communications Commission, which
provides for discounts of 20-90% on a variety of telecommunications services
and equipment for schools and libraries.

Ideally, funding would be sufficient to eliminate or greatly reduce the
telecommunications cost for qualified education and healthcare applications. A
second solution might be a subsidized International E-Rate akin to the
"E-Rate" now benefiting schools in the United States. A third option could be
to begin with free bandwidth, but raise it toward (expected to be declining)
market prices in gradual steps using the International E-Rate model.

Two separate contribution "funds" or "sources" would be established an
in-kind bandwidth transmission source and a financial assistance source.
Ideally the GSTF would include a broad coalition of commercial and
governmental sources. These might include key international organizations such
as the International Telecommunications Union (ITU), the United Nations
Educational, Cultural, and Scientific Organization (UNESCO), and the World
Health Organization (WHO) plus commercial satellite system providers,
equipment manufacturers, and providers of tele-education and tele-health.
The Coalition would also include international development banks,
bilateral aid agencies, foundations, and various types of companies
contributing to the Fund as well as organizations contributing education and
healthcare knowledge. The Fund could be administered in a variety of ways, but
it must have a well organized, credible and financially scrupulous entity of
significant international standing in charge in the disbursement of funds.

The proposed Fund would be financed from a variety of public and private
sources, which could include:
* Overseas Development Assistance funds of countries belonging to
the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development.
* Cash contributions from the profits of international financial
institutions such as the World Bank and the regional development banks.
* Cash contributions from foundations and companies.
* Contributions in kind from companies owning underused satellite
transponders and/or fiber optic cable. For these companies, the
marginal cost of making available underused existing bandwidth is
near zero, but providing it may build future markets for sale at
(declining) commercial prices.

The Fund's bandwidth source might be allocated through a variety of means that
might even include an auction process to organizers of distance education and
telemedicine projects in qualifying countries. Providers of services might be
required to make some commitments of resources and in-kind participation to
qualify to use the GSTF's assets. The cash source might be used for grants
to such projects, with rules favoring poorer countries and end beneficiaries,
assuring a certain geographical distribution of benefits among regions, and
so forth. Grants might also favor international knowledge sharing. All grants
would be made through an open competitive process. These are only some
preliminary ideas. The details, including the establishment of a pilot version
of the Fund to test operational principles, need to be worked out during the
next stage in proposal development.

Next Steps Recommendations of the Working Group

Establishing the Fund and Coalition requires a critical mass of global support
for these new organizations. The ability to mobilize financial and in-kind
resources for the Fund depends on the credibility of the membership of the
Coalition. That credibility would be furthered by early support from such key
international entities as commercial satellite and fiber optic service
providers, multi-national businesses, national governmental aid agencies,
foundations, and agencies of the United Nations such as the ITU, UNESCO, WHO,
the World Bank Group (including the International Finance Corporation), and
the regional development banks (African Development Bank, Asian Development
Bank, European Bank for Reconstruction and Development, and the Inter-American
Development Bank). No legitimate agency of standing would be excluded from
participating. Creation of a preliminary coalition of participants to support
the "source for bandwidth and key equipment" as well as the "financial aid
source" would be critical to the initial testing of this concept. The example
established by the Worldspace organization to provide access to 5% of their
total system capacity by means of the Worlspace Foundation is one model that
seems to have special promise.

To that end, the working group recommends that:

1. A more polished and developed draft of the proposal be put before
major international conferences in 2000. Further it would be
highly desirable for the Clarke Institute for Telecommunications
and Information to undertake in partnership with others around the
world to organize a Summit of World Leaders Concerning the
Establishment of the GSTF.

2. An intensive effort be made to enlist the support of the
leadership of the key international institutions mentioned above,
facilitating the mobilization of bilateral aid agencies,
foundations, and multinational corporations and to bring them
together at a World Summit in Washington, D.C. in mid-2001.

3. Working groups on the various aspects to be funded and supported
by the GSTF should be organized prior to this World Summit
Meeting. These working groups would include representatives of
other interested international organizations, bilateral aid
agencies, companies, foundations, and other NGOs, as well as of
relevant information and telecommunications industry
organizations, e.g. the Global Information Infrastructure Commission.

Note: It is further hoped that providers of satellite or fiber optic system capacity
would be willing to join in further working group discussions to shape the
framework for the "pilot version" of the GSTF for tele-education and tele-health.


* The first draft of this proposal was developed by Dr. Takeshi Utsumi,
Chairman of the GLOSAS/USA and presented at the International Workshop and
Conference on Emerging Global Electronic Distance Learning (EGEDL'99) held
August 9th - 13th, 1999 at the University of Tampere, Finland. EGEDL was
sponsored by Alprint, the British Council, Finnair, Finnish Broadcasting
Company, Foundation for The Support of The United Nations (FSUN), Japanese
Medical Society of America, Ministry of Education Finland, Pan American Health
Organization (PAHO), PictureTel, Sonera, Soros Foundation/Open Society
Institute, United States Information Agency (USIA), United States National
Science Foundation, and the Information and Development Program (infoDev)
administered by the World Bank. The conference conclusions included a
recommendation to work for the establishment of the Fund and the Coalition.
Subsequently a working group was formed at a meeting held at the Pan American
Health Organization to further develop the proposal and include policy
conditionality. This proposal was prepared by that working group composed of
Peter Knight (Knight-Moore Telematics/CDI), Frank Method (UNESCO), and Lane
Smith (USAID). Helpful comments were received from Carlos Braga and Michael
Moore. Joseph Pelton and Bruce Ross-Larson provided editorial assistance and
revisions to adapt this paper to a format common to the project proposals
being considered by the Founder's Conference of the Clarke Institute for
Telecommunications and Information.


Comments concerning this paper should be sent either to Tak Utsumi, Peter
Knight or Joseph Pelton at the following e-mail addresses:
utsumi@columbia.edu, ptknight@attglobal.net, ecjpelton@aol.com



September 21, 2000

Discussion Paper with Regard to Holding a Global Summit Concerning
the Establishment of Global Services Trust Fund (GSTF)

IIC Foundations Meeting on the Digital Divide
Tampa Bay, Florida
September 25-28, 2000

Purpose: Convening in Washington, D.C. in mid-year 2001 key leaders to
consider the possible creation of a Global Service Trust Fund that would use
available satellite, telecommunications and other information systems to
further the cause of world-wide tele-education, tele-health and other social
services such as emergency warning and rescue. These world-wide leaders would
represent the top officials from satellite, telecommunications and information
organizations, foundations and global institutions, aid organizations,
educators and health care providers and political leaders.

Organizers: This event would be organized by an international invitations
committee under the auspices of the Sir Arthur C. Clarke Institute for
Telecommunications and Information and its worldwide affiliates and partners
(including GLOSAS, the Global University System, VITA, the University of
Surrey) as well as others to be agreed such as Worldspace, INTELSAT, Japan US
Telecommunications Research Institute (JUSTRI), the Japan US Science
Technology and Space Application Program (JUSTSAP).

Critical Next Steps: Seek support of International Institute of Communications
and its Digital Divide Foundations Coordination Group. Obtain $250K grant to
support organization of the Global Summit.

Host Site for Global Summit: INTELSAT Headquarters, Worldspace Headquarters or
the World Bank.

Candidate List of Invitees: See Attachment No. 1.

Preparation of Background Document for Global Summit: Much more information
needs to be assembled to describe the available technology and service
capabilities of existing and planned systems. Also further efforts need to be
made to seek expressions of support or commitments from satellite service
providers, ground terminal equipment providers, and user computer and
telecommunications equipment. There is also a need to complete an inventory
of needs and organizations around the world that would seek to use the
resources of a GSTF. This would include both a market assessment and an
effort to obtain specific commitments from organizations to support the effort
in terms of in-kind and financial support for tele-education, tele-health or
related programs. (See Attachment No. 2.)

Preliminary Concept of Format for Summit Meeting

The meeting would last no more than 90 minutes and include no more than 30 to
40 participants. The format would be highly scripted. There would be a
multi-media presentation on the purpose, goals and five years objectives of
the GSTF. Organizations that have made commitments to support the GSTF would
be highlighted in this presentation. This would, in particular, cover
satellite service providers that had committed to making 1% to 5% of their
capacity available to support the GSTF, equipment suppliers that had made
substantial commitments to supply or supply at highly discounted prices (earth
stations antennas, transceivers, satellite radio receivers, computers,
monitors, digital telephones, etc.), foundations and/or international
organizations and tele-education and tele-health experts or national aid
organizations that had made substantial commitments to participate in and use
the resources of the GSTF (including their own pledge of resources or in-kind participation).

There would then be presentations from the key organizations that have made
the most important commitments. There would be a copy of vision speeches that
address where we might go from here. These might be made by such individuals
as Jimmy Carter, the Secretary General of the UN, Sir Arthur C. Clarke, etc.

The meeting would be followed by a high profile press conference that would
announce the formation and nature of the GSTF. Arthur C. Clarke might be
invited to participate in the press conference via satellite relay to talk
about his initial vision of the "electronic tutor" and how the GSTF might be
able to accomplish some of the goals he had envisioned some 2 decades ago.

Attachment No. 1

Candidates for Attending Summit on GSTF
Dr. Norm Abramson, President and Chief Technical Officer of Alohanet/PEACESAT
Kofi Annan, Secretary General of the UN
David Bell, President, Care International of the United States, Atlanta, Georgia
G. Berretta, President and Director General, EUTELSAT, Paris, France
Jimmy Carter, The Carter Foundation, Atlanta, Georgia
Dr. Kodai, President, National Aeronautical and Space Development Agency, Japan
Conny Kullman, Director General, INTELSAT
Fredrico Mayor, former Secretary Genera of UNESCO
Rupert Murdoch, The News Corporation, New York, New York
Noah Samara, Chairman, Worldspace, Washington, D.C.
Tadahiro Sekimoto, Senior Board Member, NEC, Japan
Michael Storey, President of Inmarsat
Ted Turner, Chairman, Turner Broadcasting
Yoshio Utsumi, Secretary General, ITU
John Wolfensohn, President World Bank
Andrew Young, Atlanta Georgia
Koichiro Matsuura, Secretary General, UNESCO
Hiroshi Inose, Director General, National Center for Science Information System (NACSIS)
Taro Nakayama, Former Minister for Foreign Affairs, Japan

Other possible invitees (Total participants not to exceed 25)
President, Gates Foundation
President, Markle Foundation
President, Ford Foundation
George Soros, President, The Soros Foundations
Vartan Gregorian, President, Carnegie Corporation of New York
Reinhard Keune, Frederick Ebert Foundation
Tim Wirth, the Better World Foundation
President of VITA
President of Red Cross International
President of Oxfam
President of Hughes Network Services
President of Gilat
President of Dell
President of HP
President of Alcatel Espace
President of Toshiba or Melco
President of Hitachi
President of Motorola
President of CNN
President of Reuters
Head of WHO and PAHO
Tele-education or Tele-health Organizations Making the top five commitments to
support and use of GSTF
Representative of U.S. President elect
Representative of the United Kingdom
Director, JICA (Japan)
Director, AID (US)
Director, CIDA (Canada)
Director, DHW (Germany)
Director, British Council
IBM Foundation

Attachment No. 2

Preparations and Schedule
1. At least two supporting documents for the meeting will be prepared as noted below.
2. Invitations will be extended to participants starting by end of February
2001 with the most critical individuals who are committed to bring the
GSTF into being will be invited first.
3. Invitation and Coordination Committee for Summit (to be formed by year end 2000)
4. Media committee will arrange for information kits for attendees, power
point presentations, press conference, etc.

Supporting Document Number 1: The Needed Technologies (Options and Costs)

(This paper would be prepared by a team headed by Gary Gariott. It would seek
the input and supporting analysis from Jim Miller, John Mack, D.K. Sachdev,
Uli Knirsch and Joe Pelton)

Purpose: The purpose of this paper would be to identify the various options
that are available or will be available within two years to provide national,
regional, or global tele-education services, tele-health and tele-medicine
services (and possibly emergency warning and rescue operations).

This paper will describe the technical options for delivering such services
and a "typical profile" for each delivery system.

1. Option One: Service delivery to a remote village via conventional
communications satellite and local wireless loop systems where village
does (and does not) have electricity (i.e. Intelsat, Eutelsat, Panamsat,
Cyberstar). This would include asymmetric services between 64 kbps to 2
Mbps downstream and 4.8 kbps to 64 kbps upstream)
2. Option Two: Digital Video Broadcast service to remote villages at speeds
up to 6 Mbps with alternative upstream return via little LEO messaging
or 2.4 kbps via mobile satellite systems. (Intelsat or Cyberstar
(downstream) and Orbcom (upstream), Regional Satellite systems
(downstream) and Vitasat (upstreams), etc.
3. Option Three: Radio and Multi-media broadcast with alternative
downstream services to request different educational and health
programming to be broadcast (i.e. Worldspace downstream 16 kbps and 128kbps).
4. Option Four: Asymmetric Mobile Satellite Service via Inmarsat, Thuraya,
ACeS or ICO Ltd. (432 kbps downstream and 144 kbps upstream).

This paper would also seek to address:
1. The educational or health care services that could be provided via each option,
2. The bandwidth (and time periods of service) associated with each option.
3. The type of remote village terminal equipment access and connectivity
required to deliver the service
4. The earth station and telecommunications equipment required
5. As applicable the power requirements that would need to be supported by
battery or solar or other means.
6. The local human resource and equipment needed to deliver the service
(and the skill level and training that would be required)
7. The cost of the equipment and human resources that would be required.
(This should give consideration to such costs as transportation,
shipping, insurance, maintenance and repair, and duties or tariffs that might apply.)

(Note: It should be noted that one of the objectives of the GSTF would not
only be to have equipment donated or made available at reduced cost but to
have local duties and tariffs associated with tele-education, tele-health and
emergency communications to be eliminated.)

Supporting Document No. 2: Key Issues to be Addressed with regard to
Implementation of the Global Services Trust Fund

(This paper would be coordinated by Frank Method, Peter Knight, Tak Utsumi,
Joe Pelton and others)

This document would address the issue of:

How commitments could be made for in-kind contributions to the GSTF,
How nations, international organizations, foundations and corporations
could support the program,
How issues of legal liability would be addressed,
How the precedents of InfoDev, Project Share and other programs would
apply to the structure and organization of the GSTF,
How issues of tax-deductible donations would be addressed,
How pilot programs would demonstrate the feasbility of the GSTF,
How the technical distribution, human resources, and program components
would be coordinated and integrated together,
How the implementation of the GSTF might evolve over next three to five years.

Attendance List for 20 June 2000 Planning Meeting on Global Summit on GSTF

Nam Affiliation
Reuben Abraham,
Columbia Institute of Tele-Information
Bernardin Arnason,
4121 Wilson Blvd, 10th fl. Arl. Va. 22203 NTCA
Roger Boston,
Houston Community College
Janice Brodman,
Education Development Center
Tyrone Brown,
World Tel Sat. Services, 1776 K St. N.W. Wash, D.C. 20006
Bruce Chadwick,
Winrock International
Alice Dear,
24 BP 190, Abidjan 24, Cote d'Ivoire
Anton Keller,
Consir Geneva and Swiss Investors Protection Assoc.
Maria Kendro,
NTCA, 4121 Wilson Blvd. 10th fl., Arl. Va. 22203
Peter Knight,
Knight-Moore Telematics for Education Development
Uli Knirsch,
Advanced System Develop., INTELSAT (202) 944-7164
John L. Mack,
John Mack & Assoc., P.O. Box 567, Upper Marlboro, MD 20772
Jim Miller,
Synerctics, Ltd. Seattle, Wash.
Laura Fitz-Pegado,
1701 1701 Hutchinson La., Silver Spring, MD. 20906
Joseph N. Pelton;
Prof. GWU & Exec Dir. CITI, 4025 40th St. N., Arl, Va. 22207
D.K. Sachdev,
Worldspace, 2400 N. Street N.W., Wash, D.C.
Chitra Sharathchandra,
NTCA (chitra@ntca.org)
Michael Tetelman,
NTCA (mtetelman@ntca.org)
Takeshi Utsumi,
GLOSAS and Columbia University
Steve Weisler,
Hampshire College, Amherst, Mass.
List of Distribution

Dr. Joseph N. Pelton
Board member of GLOSAS/USA
Senior Research Scientist
Institute for Applied Space Research, Rm 340
George Washington University
2033 K Street, N.W.
Washington, D.C. 20052
Fax: 202-994-5505
Acting Executive Director of CITI
Vice-Chair of the Arthur C. Clarke Foundation of the U.S. (ACCFUS)
Arthur C. Clark Institute for Telecommunication and Information (CITI)
4025 40th Street North
Arlington, VA 22207
(703) 536-6985

Peter T. Knight, Ph.D.
Board member of GLOSAS/USA
Knight, Moore - Telematics for Education and Development
Communications Development Incorporated (CDI)
Strategy, Policy, Design, Implementation, Evaluation
1808 I Street, NW, 7th Floor
Washington, DC 20006, USA
Tel: 1-202-775-2132 (secretary), 1-202-721-0348 (direct)
Fax: 1-202-775-2135 (office), 1-202-362-8482 (home)
IP for CU-SeeMe:
webmail: ptknight@netscape.net
http://www.knight-moore.com/partners/partnerindex.htm -- bio
http://www.knight-moore.com/projects/GSTF.html -- about GSTF

Francis J. Method
Director, UNESCO-Washington
United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization
1775 K St. N.W.
Washington, DC 20006
Phone: (1) 202-331-3755
Fax: (1) 202-331-9121
* Takeshi Utsumi, Ph.D., P.E., Chairman, GLOSAS/USA *
* (GLObal Systems Analysis and Simulation Association in the U.S.A.) *
* Laureate of Lord Perry Award for Excellence in Distance Education *
* Founder of CAADE *
* (Consortium for Affordable and Accessible Distance Education) *
* President Emeritus and V.P. for Technology and Coordination of *
* Global University System (GUS) *
* 43-23 Colden Street, Flushing, NY 11355-3998, U.S.A. *
* Tel: 718-939-0928; Fax: 718-939-0656 (day time only--prefer email) *
* Email: utsumi@columbia.edu; Tax Exempt ID: 11-2999676 *
* http://www.friends-partners.org/GLOSAS/ *

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